Managing the teaching of Cham characters to Cham people in Ham Thuan Bac district, Binh Thuan province - 8

* About the need for textbooks

Regarding the need for textbooks and learning tools for Cham, it is best that the State allocates free textbooks and tools for learning Cham characters to the Cham people so that they can learn Cham characters. This is as normal as the distribution of free textbooks for illiteracy eradication in Mandarin (Vietnamese) to everyone, in order to partly reduce costs for learners and encourage everyone to participate in learning. demonstrate equality and give priority to ethnic minorities in the implementation of the Party and State's language policy. 

2.2.5. Aspirations of the elders, religious dignitaries and intellectuals in the area of ​​residence about the organization of teaching Cham script for the Cham people.

TABLE 2.10: STATISTICS OF LEARNING DEMAND BY SOCIAL COMPONENTS 

Place of residence Social composition Very needed Need Yes, yes, no Add
SL % SL % SL % SL
Ma Lam Old 9 90.0 first 10.0 0 0 ten
Officer 8 100 0 0 0 0 8
Religious dignitaries 4 100 0 0 0 0 4
Add 21 95.5 first 4.5 0 0 22
Ham Phu Old first 100 0 0 0 0 first
Officer 4 100 0 0 0 0 4
Religious dignitaries 5 83.3 first 16.7 0 0 6
Add ten 90.9 first 9.1 0 0 11
Ham Tri Old 5 71.4 first 14.3 first 14.3 7
Officer 2 50.0 first 25.0 first 25.0 4
Religious dignitaries 4 66.6 first 16.7 first 16.7 6
Add 11 64.7 3 17.6 3 17.6 17
Three communes Old 15 83.3 2 11.1 first 5.6 18
Officer 14 87.5 first 6.2 first 6.2 16
Religious dignitaries 13 81.3 2 12.5 first 6.2 16
total 42 84.0 5 10.0 3 6.0 50

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(Source: processing interview data)

Graph 2.9: DEMAND FOR LEARNING BY SOCIAL COMPONENTS

Table 2.10 shows:

Among 18 elderly people (village elders) there are 15 opinions, accounting for 83.3%, saying that it is "very necessary" and 2 opinions accounting for 11.1% saying "need" to organize Cham literacy training for the Cham people; 1 opinion, accounting for 5.6%, said that "yes, it's okay or not"; there is no opinion that "no need" to organize Cham literacy training for the elderly Cham.

There were 16 civil servants interviewed, of which 14 comments, accounting for 87.5%, said that it was "very necessary" and 1 opinion, accounting for 6.2%, said "need" to organize Cham literacy training for the Cham people; There is 1 opinion, accounting for 6.2% of the opinion that “yes also 

yes or no”; However, there is no opinion that "no need" to organize Cham literacy training for the elderly Cham.

Participating in the interview, there were 16 people holding religious dignitaries of both Brahmin and Muslim religions, of which 13 opinions accounted for 81.3% of people said that it was "very necessary" and 2 opinions accounted for 12, 5% stated that they "need" to organize Cham literacy training for the Cham people; There is also 1 opinion, accounting for 6.2%, saying that "yes is okay or not"; there is no opinion that "no need" to organize Cham literacy training for the elderly Cham.

Through the above analysis, it is shown that all three interviewees, which are reputable in many aspects in the Cham community, have quite high consensus in the statement "need" and "very necessary" to teach Cham characters to the Cham people. old; There is no opinion that "no need" to teach Cham characters. That, once again affirms the necessity to organize Cham literacy classes in the Cham community. 

2.3. Situation of the contingent of teachers to teach Cham characters in Ham Thuan Bac district, Binh Thuan province

TABLE 2.11: CAREER TEACHING CAPACITY 

  Can teach No teaching
is
Add
SL % SL % SL %
Place of residence Ma Lam Job Farm 17 39.5 79 33.1 96 34.0
Officer first 2.3 first 0.4 2 0.7
Is different 3 7.0 twelfth 5.0 15 5.3
Add 21 48.8 92 38.5 113 40.1
Ham Phu Job Farm 3 7.0 41 17.2 44 15.6
Officer 0 0 4 1.7 4 1.4
Is different 0 0 2 0.8 2 0.7
Add 3 7 47 19.7 50 17.7
Ham Tri Job Farm 9 20.9 92 38.5 101 35.8
Officer 9 20.9 7 2.9 16 5.7
Is different first 2.3 first 0.4 2 0.7
Add 19 44.2 100 41.8 119 42.2
Three communes Job Farm 29 67.4 212 88.7 241 85.5
Officer ten 23.3 twelfth 5.0 22 7.8
Is different 4 9.3 15 6.3 19 6.7
total 43 100 239 100 282 100

(Source: processing questionnaires)

CHARACTERISTICS 2.10: CASE OF CAREER TEACHING

Table 2.11 shows:

Out of 257 people working in agriculture, 241 people answered about their ability to participate in teaching Cham script. Of which, 29/241, accounting for 12% of the respondents, said that "Teaching" Cham characters.

Among the above 29 people who can "teach" the Cham script, there are still many people with low Cham literacy, but their enthusiasm will be a source of encouragement for the elderly to learn Cham.

The remaining 212/241, accounting for 88%, said that they "can't teach" Cham characters.

There are 22 people out of 24 civil servants stating the possibility of participating in teaching Cham characters, of which 10/22 people account for 45.5% of the opinions that "teach" Cham characters.

The remaining 12/22 civil servants, accounting for 54.5% of the respondents, said that they "cannot teach" the Cham script. Due to professional characteristics, civil servants are a force 

qualified and more able to teach Cham than farmers and other people in the community. If they are well motivated and nurtured, they will soon become participants in teaching Cham characters to the community.

TABLE 2.12: POSSIBILITY OF TEACHING TEACHING BY TEACHING LEVELS 

  Ability to teach Cham characters Add
Can teach Unable to teach SL %
SL % SL %
    Submit MC 17 39.5 71 29.7 88 31.2
    L1-L3 first 2.3 2 0.8 3 1.1
  Ghost degree
  letter L4-L5 0 0 3 1.3 3 1.1
  Lam Hard
  TMC 3 7.0 16 6.7 19 6.7
    Add 21 48.8 92 38.5 113 40.1
    works
of
MC 3 7.0 37 15.5 40 14.2
  Jaw L1-L3 0 0 6 2.5 6 2.1
  letter L4-L5 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Phu
  Hard
Geography TMC 0 0 4 1.7 4 1.4
Table    
  Add 3 7.0 47 19.7 50 17.7
live  
    MC 7 16.3 eighty seven 36.4 ninety four 33.3
stay    
  Jaw degree L1-L3 7 16.3 first 0.4 8 2.8
  letter L4-L5 2 4.7 4 1.7 6 2.1
  Tri
  Hard
  TMC 3 7.0 8 3.3 11 3.9
    Add 19 42.2 100 41.8 119 42.2
  Three communes   MC 27 62.8 195 81.6 222 78.7
  degree L1-L3 8 18.6 9 3.8 17 6.0
  letter L4-L5 2 4.7 7 2.9 9 3.2
  Hard
  TMC 6 13.9 28 11.7 34 12.1
total 43 100 239 100 282 100

(Source: Processing questionnaires)

CHARGER 2.11: Possibility of TEACHING ATTENTION BY LEVEL OF CARING

Table 2.12 shows:

Although there are 43 people who enthusiastically think that they can participate in teaching Cham characters, among them, 27/43 people account for 62.7% of the people who are still illiterate in Cham and 6/43 people. accounting for 13.9% of people who are re-illiterated in Cham. Both of these categories are 33/43 people, accounting for 76.7% of people who think they can teach Cham characters. In the immediate future, this number of people can hardly undertake the teaching of Cham characters. Choosing teachers to teach Cham from illiterate people is a long-term task.

The number of Cham literate from grade 1 to grade 5 is 26 people, of which 16/26, accounting for 61.5%, think that "can't teach" Cham script. The remaining 10/26 people, accounting for 38.5% of Cham literate people, believe that they can "teach" Cham, of which only 2 people have the level of 4th and 5th grade. Although the level of Cham literacy stops at primary school, However, they are native Cham people, so they already have a pretty good Cham language. We can create a source to teach Cham characters to the community from this force.

 Through the above analysis, it can be said that the training resources of Cham teachers in the district are still small, and in the immediate future, it is difficult to meet the teaching requirements in accordance with the regulations of the education sector. Therefore, teaching Cham characters to the elderly requires the attention and investment of the education sector in the field of training Cham teachers.

Through the survey results, the survey participants trusted to introduce 8 people who could participate in teaching Cham characters. These people are qualified in terms of ethics and teaching ability, 6 out of 8 of these people are currently teachers who are engaged in teaching the mainstream Cham language to students in primary schools in the densely populated areas. Cham people.

2.4. The current situation of managing Cham literacy for elderly Cham people in Ham Thuan Bac district, Binh Thuan province

In Ham Thuan Bac district, Binh Thuan province, the teaching of Cham language to primary school children where a large number of Cham people live has been carried out since 1981. However, the teaching of Cham characters to older Cham people has been carried out since 1981. The age has not been officially set by the competent authorities.

In 2001, due to the need to supplement Cham language teachers for primary schools, which lacked teachers of this subject; at the request of the Department of Education and Training and Training of Ham Thuan Bac district, the Department of Education and Training of Binh Thuan agreed, allowing the opening of Cham language classes for Cham teachers, officials and youth for the purpose of foster, step by step train qualified team of Cham language, supplement the force of Cham language teachers in primary schools. Through this Cham language class, many Cham people, especially young Cham people, are very eager to learn the letters of their nation. From that aspiration and on the basis of reports from the heads of villages with a large number of Cham people living, the Ham Thuan Bac Department of Education and Training and Training has submitted to the Binh Thuan Department of Education and Training for permission to open classes. Teaching Cham language to Cham officials and young people.In Document No. 462/SGD DT-KHTC dated October 11, 2006, the Director of Binh Thuan Department of Education and Training has allowed Ham Thuan Bac Department of Education and Training and Training to open a Cham language teaching class for staff. Ministries and young people of the Cham ethnic group. Currently, in Ham Thuan Bac district, 3 more Cham language classes have been opened for officials and young people with 116 students enrolled (as of November 2006)[20].

The management of Cham classes for adults is done as follows:

2.4.1. Managing the planning for the development of the Cham script class

- The Department of Education and Training assigns the responsibility to the Principal of the Primary School that is teaching Cham language to students to plan to open a Cham language class for adults and submit it to the Department of Education and Training.

- The Education and Training Department approves the school's plan to open Cham language classes for adults; consider and arrange Cham language teachers in primary schools in combination with teaching Cham script classes for adults; Inform the local authorities of the plan to open Cham language classes for adults.

 - The Department of Education and Training shall report to the People's Committee of Ham Thuan Bac district and the Department of Education and Training of Binh Thuan to monitor, direct and request the province for financial support. 

2.4.2. Managing the implementation of the program and teaching plan

- The curriculum and textbooks are distributed and distributed by the Department of Education and Training to each school that has a Cham language class like the distribution of programs and textbooks for other subjects in the school.

- The Department of Education and Training assigns principals of primary schools to manage the implementation of programs and plans to teach Cham elderly people such as the management of literacy programs in their respective areas.

 - The Department of Education and Training plans and organizes to inspect the implementation of the Cham literacy program for adults, thereby evaluating the management of the principal of the primary school that has Cham classes.

2.4.3. Manage the teacher's lesson preparation and lesson preparation

- After discussing with the Cham language teachers, the Department of Education and Training prescribes and guides the preparation of a lesson plan for a lesson teaching Cham characters for adults.

 - The Department of Education and Training stipulates the responsibilities of the primary school principal, the leader of the Cham language group in guiding the preparation of lessons, checking and giving suggestions on the lesson preparation of the teachers to teach the Cham language to adults.

The Cham language teacher for adults is under the control of the leader of the Cham language group and the principal of the primary school where the class is held.

2.4.4. Manage teacher's class time

- The Department of Education and Training reminds the Principals to pay attention to attending classes and visiting Cham classes to encourage students' learning spirit and to comment and give suggestions to teachers' lessons.

 - While there is no standard to evaluate the teaching hours of teachers of Cham classes for the elderly, the Department of Education and Training assigns 

Based on the evaluation criteria of teaching hours of Cham language teachers in primary schools and the evaluation criteria of one lesson in literacy class to evaluate teaching hours of teachers teaching Cham literacy to the elderly.

Managing class time of teachers in Cham classes for adults is a very difficult job, mainly focusing on motivating the teacher's sense of responsibility.

2.4.5. Managing the activities of the Cham language (specialist) group, attending the time and the educational process of the Cham language teacher.

- The Department of Education and Training stipulates that the Cham language group leader in primary schools is responsible for managing activities of teaching Cham characters to adults; The principal of the primary school with a Cham language group is responsible for managing the content of the activities of this group's activities; The hours of attendance and exercises of the teacher of the Cham class for adults are also counted as the number of hours taught in a primary school when testing the teacher's skills.

 - The Department of Education and Training considers the performance results of the Cham language group and the teaching of Cham characters to adults as the basis for evaluating the school's management by the Principal.

 - The Department of Education and Training organizes an inspection of the school's management by the Principal, including the inspection of the contents of the Principal's direction of the teaching of Cham script for adults.

2.4.6. Manage professional profiles of teachers

The Department of Education and Training stipulates:

- Professional records of teachers teaching adult Cham literacy classes like those of teachers teaching general literacy (Vietnamese), including:

 + Lesson plan + Gradebook 80 + Time book (common for other classes, calculated for each teacher) + Homeroom book - Types of professional records of teachers teaching Cham script for adults must be presented in English Vietnamese in some content.

2.4.7. Manage the testing and assessment of learners' learning results

 - The Department of Education and Training temporarily regulates the implementation of the system of testing and assessing learning outcomes in Cham literacy classes for adults, such as the testing and evaluation regime for a general literacy class (Vietnamese language). ) current, including:

 + Oral test score    

+ 15 minute test score    

+ Check point for 1 period    

+ 3 stage test scores according to the study program    

+ Test score at the end of the course 

- The Department of Education and Training assigns the principal of the primary school to be responsible for organizing the assessment of the classroom's learning results, and reporting the learning results to the Department of Education and Training at the end of each period according to progress. Program implementation of Cham language classes for adults.

2.4.8. Manage the assignment of teachers to teach Cham classes

 - The principal assigns teachers to teach Cham classes for adults, based on the request of the leader of the Cham language group in the school, mainly older teachers with extensive experience in teaching Cham characters. .

 - Principals regularly monitor the teaching process of teachers, when necessary decide to adjust the assignment.

2.4.9. Managing the process of training and fostering the team of teachers to teach Cham characters

 - The Department of Education and Training makes a plan to propose the Department of Education and Training to train a team of Cham language teachers for the district. In 2001, Binh Thuan Department of Education and Training allowed the Ham Thuan Bac Department of Education and Training to open a Cham literacy class to create a source of Cham language teachers[23].

 - In 2001, the Department of Education and Training created favorable conditions for all Cham teachers to study Cham script to teach Cham language when necessary.

 - The Department of Education and Training appoints Cham language teachers to attend the training courses to teach Cham language organized by the Department of Education and Training.

 - The Principal of the Primary School regularly organizes seminars on teaching the Cham language, gives suggestions on the hours of Cham language teaching, and maintains Cham language group activities; Pay attention to how to teach Cham characters to the elderly.

 - The process of training and retraining has achieved encouraging results.

TABLE 2.13: STATISTICS OF TEACHER TEACHER   

S TT

Unit

Number of teachers

Gender

Level

specialize

Able to teach Cham characters

Teacher over 60 years old is teaching contract

Go on bussiness

female

first

Ma Lam

2

0

THSP

2

2

2

Ham Phu

3

first

THSP

first

first

3

Ham Tri

7

3

THSP

4

first

4

Other communes

7

3

THSP

0

0

Add

19

6

 

7

4

(Source Department of Education and Training and Training of Ham Thuan Bac district)[19]

As of January 1, 2007, the team of Cham language teachers in Ham Thuan Bac district has 7 people, including 4 retired teachers who are under contract to teach again and 1 person is holding the position of Principal. These teachers are teaching 20 Cham language classes in primary schools and three Cham language classes for the elderly. The total number of Cham teachers is 19 out of a total of 4486 Cham people in Ham Thuan Bac district, accounting for only 4% of the Cham population, while this rate among the Kinh people is 13.3% (source of Education Department. and Ham Thuan Bac District Training). Out of 19 primary school teachers of the Cham people, only 7 people, accounting for 38.8%, are able to teach Cham characters. Currently, they are in charge of teaching Cham language in primary schools. However, among them, there are also 4 people over 60 years old. So,In fact, only 3 official teachers are capable of teaching Cham, if they do not promptly train a team of Cham teachers with Cham literacy so that they can teach Cham, it will be difficult to maintain. The current teaching of Cham language in primary schools and the teaching of Cham script for the elderly cannot be carried out.

2.4.10. Manage facilities and conditions to support teaching activities

- The Department of Education and Training assigns the Principal of the Primary School to be responsible for arranging facilities for teaching Cham characters.

Normally, Principals choose a Classroom with tables and chairs suitable for adults to arrange for the class. 

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