Managing the teaching of Cham characters to Cham people in Ham Thuan Bac district, Binh Thuan province - 11

By occupation, there were 44 farmers, accounting for 97.7% of the students who dropped out of school. The main reason for the above situation is that most of the practitioners are affected by the peak season of the crop - from April to May every year, farmers have to focus a lot of effort on sowing. grow. Only civil servants do not drop out of school, and 10 out of 10 people are still studying.

This is also something for educational managers to think about finding ways to mobilize students to try to go to class and choose the right time to organize classes or maybe let students leave school for a while. certain deadlines when encountering peak periods such as crops or Tet holidays… 2.6.5. About the quality of learning Cham characters of the elderly

TABLE 2.16: QUALITY STATISTICS OF CAREER CLASS FOR ELDERATES ONLY (As of 5/5/2007) 

STT UNIT Good Rather Average Weak Add
SL % SL % SL % SL % SL
01 Ma Lam 8 53.4 5 33.3 2 13.3 0 0 15
02 Ham Phu 14 53.8 twelfth 46.2 0 0 0 0 26
03 Ham Tri 5 17 ten 33 15 50 0 0 30
Add 27 38.0 27 38.0 17 24.0 0 0 71

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(Source: Department of Education and Training and Training of Ham Thuan Bac district)[20]

Graph 2.14: QUALITY OF CHAM CLASS CLASS (Until 5/5/2007)

Comments on learning quality:

Through the data in Table 3.16, it shows that the average rate of students is only 24%, and the rate of good and good students is 76%. The main reason to achieve such high results is due to the efforts of the learners and the enthusiasm of the teachers. On the other hand, learners who focus on only one subject should have time to learn. Some people have dropped out, in addition to objective reasons due to the influence of the crop, usually they are not really interested in learning, maybe because they have not studied well, so they do not feel interested in learning.

The Education sector needs to research and specify the assessment of learners' learning outcomes. Thereby, teachers recognize the learning results of students and their teaching ability, this is also the basis for educational administrators to review teaching activities and evaluate the effectiveness of class organization. learn Cham. 

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Conclusion

- The level of Cham community Cham people in Ham Thuan Bac district is still very low, more than 90% Cham illiteracy Cham, especially among those with educational level of ordinary low-class farming, female gender and over the age of 35.

- Most Cham people have a high need for learning Cham characters, especially at the age of 21 - 30, their thinking is quite mature. They began to have a deeper sense of the necessity and meaning of learning Cham characters. Thus, the need to learn Cham script of the Cham people in Ham Thuan Bac district is a fact, expressing the legitimate aspirations of the majority of the Cham ethnic group.

- The purpose of learning Cham script of the Cham people has been clearly confirmed, firstly, to preserve the Cham language and writing, thereby learning the Cham's customs and habits, contributing to preserving the Cham language. cultural identity of the Vietnamese ethnic community.

- Cham people who are determined to learn Cham characters have proposed forms of learning Cham characters suitable to the living conditions of each residence area; wishes to have the state provide learning tools and support for Cham textbooks so that they have better conditions in learning. In addition, they also volunteer to teach Cham or introduce people with Cham literacy and moral character to teach them Cham.

- Although there is a general policy of the State on teaching ethnic minority letters to ethnic minorities, the teaching of Cham characters has not been concretized and is not considered a problem that needs to be managed scientifically. learn. 

- The management of teaching Cham characters to the Cham people presented in this thesis initially clarified the theoretical issues, consistent with the main practice of Ham Thuan Bac district.

- The teaching of Cham was initially supported by the local government, attended by the majority of classes, and created confidence in the Cham community about the management ability of the education sector.

- After nearly a year of studying Cham script, the participants have almost finished the Cham literacy course. Hopefully from here the Cham people can learn better about customs and habits through ancient texts and absorb the necessary information through the Cham's voice and writing on the mass media.

2. Recommendations section

2.1. For the Ministry of Education and Training

Organize and compile programs, textbooks and teaching manuals for teaching Cham characters for elderly Cham people in Binh Thuan province (Can be used for the whole province of Ninh Thuan).

2.2. For the People's Committee of Binh Thuan province

- Directing the Department of Education and Training on the implementation of the Cham literacy program and Cham literacy textbooks for the elderly in the current period while waiting for the Ministry of Education and Training to officially issue the learning program. Cham letters for the elderly.

- Regulations on working regimes, salary payments and gratuities for teachers who directly teach Cham characters to the elderly. Continue to study the cost of organizing Cham literacy classes for the elderly as a general literacy class, in order to create favorable conditions for Cham people to study, contributing to the good implementation of the language policy. language of the Party and State.

2.3. For Binh Thuan Department of Education and Training:

* Continue to submit to the Provincial People's Committee for approval the annual funding for the opening of a Cham literacy class for the elderly as a general literacy class.

* Submit to the Provincial People's Committee regulations on working regime, salary payment, and gratuity for teachers who directly teach Cham characters to the elderly.

* Directing the opening of Cham literacy classes for the elderly Cham, considering this a regular job in the work of illiteracy eradication in general, and Cham illiteracy eradication in particular.

* In addition to the plan to train Cham language teachers for students in primary schools, it is necessary to combine to train enough teachers to teach Cham characters for the elderly.

* Regulations and guidelines for the implementation of professional issues in management and teaching of Cham characters such as:

- About records and books: Lesson plan, grade book, first book, homeroom book... - About how to evaluate students' learning results: number of points to be tested, how to calculate points, how to classify learning , conditions to be promoted… - Issuance of a certificate upon completion of the class, the end of the school year.

- The mode of information and reports on the organization and teaching of Cham characters for the elderly.

* Regulations on the responsibilities of the Department of Education and Training and the primary school in managing the teaching of Cham script for elderly Cham people.

Regulations on the regime of responsibility of teachers who teach Cham characters, teachers in charge of illiteracy eradication and school administrators when organizing classes to teach Cham characters.

2.4. With the People's Committee of Ham Thuan Bac district

* Directing the addition of Regulations on responsibilities and powers of the Department of Education and Training in the State management of education, which is the task of managing the teaching of Cham script for the elderly Cham.

* Pay better attention to building classrooms, equipping tables and chairs for Cham classes of older Cham people.

2.5. Ham Thuan Bac Department of Education and Training

* Continue to experiment with managing Cham literacy for the elderly to find the best and most effective solution for this activity.

* Make recommendations to the Binh Thuan Department of Education and Training on issues related to the policies and regimes of teachers and learners; supplement professional regulations in the management of Cham literacy teaching activities for the elderly Cham.

۞ Development direction of the topic

The topic will be further researched and tested in Ham Thuan Bac district to complete. The author of the thesis wishes that educational management levels in the provinces and districts where a large number of Cham people live will supplement the task of educational management, the task of managing the teaching of Cham literacy for the elderly Cham, in order to contribute to preserve and promote the advanced Vietnamese culture imbued with national identity./. 

REFERENCES

1. Duc Anh (2006), “Preserving the Cham ethnic language and writing”, Nhan Dan Newspaper, (November 12, 2006), page 5.

2. Ministry of Education (1972), "Circular 19/TT dated 18/02/1972 guiding the implementation of the Government's Decision No. 53/CP on teaching ethnic letters in the education sector".

3. Ministry of Education and Training (1997), “Circular No. 01/GDĐT dated February 3, 1997 guiding the teaching of ethnic minority languages ​​and scripts”.

4. Ministry of Education and Training (1997), "Circular No. 14/GDDT dated August 5, 1997 guiding standards and procedures for testing and evaluating results of anti-illiteracy and primary education universalization" .

5. Ministry of Education and Training (2000), “Primary School Charter” (Issued together with Decision No. 22/QD-BGDĐT dated 11/7/2000 of the Minister of Education and Training).

6. Ministry of Education and Training (2006), "Ethics and methods of moral education in primary schools", Education Publishing House.

7. Nong Quoc Chan, Huynh Ai Vinh (2002), "The culture of Vietnamese ethnic groups is unified and diverse", National Political Publishing House, Hanoi.

8. Hoang Thi Chau (2007), "The situation and policy of building and popularizing the writing of ethnic minorities in Vietnam", Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

9. Government (1962), “Decree 206/CP on teaching ethnic letters in high schools and eradicating illiteracy”.

10. Government (1980), “Decision No. 53/CP on the policy of writing for ethnic minorities”.

11. Government (2001), “Decree No. 35/2001/ND-CP dated 09/07/2001 on policies for teachers and educational administrators working in special schools and in regulated areas especially difficult socio-economic conditions”.

12. Communist Party of Vietnam (1940), "Central Resolution 1940", Party Documents, Truth Publishing House, Hanoi -1963.

13. Communist Party of Vietnam (1941), "The 8th Central Resolution of the Indochinese Communist Party", Party Documents, Truth Publishing House, Hanoi-1963.

14. Council of Ministers (1990), “Directive 01/HDBT dated January 2, 1990 of the work of eradicating illiteracy”.

15. Inrasara (1994), "Cham literature: Essays and selections", National Culture Publishing House.

16. Inrasara (2003), “Self-studying Cham language, Ethnic Culture Publishing House.

17. Inrasara (2003), "Cham culture - society", Literature Publishing House.

18. Hoang Van Ma (2002), "Vietnamese ethnic minority languages ​​- Some problems of origin relations and geometric types". Social Science Publishing House, Hanoi.

19. Ham Thuan Bac Department of Education and Training (2006), “Statistical report on the situation of civil servants and public employees in the school year 2006-2007”, signed by the Head of Education and Training Department on October 1, 2006.

20. Ham Thuan Bac Department of Education and Training (2007), "Report on activities of Cham literacy classes of the elderly up to May 2007", Head of Education and Training Department signed on June 1// 2007.

21. National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (2005), “Law on Education”, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi.

22. National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (1991), “Law on universalization of primary education”, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi.

23. Binh Thuan Department of Education and Training (2001), “On the opening of Cham language classes”, Official Letter No. 877/TH signed by the Director of the Department of Education and Training on October 17, 2001.

24. Binh Thuan Department of Education and Training (2006), “About replying to the report No. 294/PGD”, Official Letter No. 462/SGDĐT-KHTC signed by the Director of the Department of Education and Training on 10/11/ 2006.

25. Binh Thuan Department of Finance (2007), "About funding for the organization of teaching Cham characters to the Cham people", Official Letter No. 3108/STC-HCSN signed by the Director of the Department of Finance on June 19, 2007.

26. Bui Khanh The (1996), "Cham grammar", Education Publishing House.

27. Lam Thuan village, Ham Phu commune, Ham Thuan Bac district, Binh Thuan province (2004), "Declaration on proposal to open Cham literacy class", Lam Thuan village chief signed on January 5, 2004.

28. Vuong Toan (2002), "Research on languages ​​of southern ethnic minorities in the 1990s", National University Publishing House, Hanoi.

29. Nguyen Duc Tri (2002), “Management of the training process in schools”, Hanoi Publishing House.

30. School of Education and Training Managers (2002), “State management of education and training - Training curriculum part III”.

31. Hoang Tue (1984), "Language of Vietnam's ethnic minorities and language policy", Social Science Publishing House, Hanoi.

32. Hoang Tue (1993), "Language education and cultural development of ethnic minorities in the South", Social Science Publishing House, Hanoi.

33. People's Committee of Ham Thuan Bac district (2006), "Plan to continue implementing the goals of building and comprehensively developing people's livelihood, socio-economic status in ethnic minority areas in the period 2006 - 2010 according to Resolution 04 of the Provincial Party Committee", Official Dispatch No. 1008/KH-UBND signed by the Chairman of the District People's Committee on September 8, 2006.

34. Vietnam Institute of Social Sciences (2007), “Preserving and promoting the Cham ethnic language and writing”, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

APPENDIX

APPENDIX 1: AKHAR THRAH (AKHAR THRAH) 

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APPENDIX 2: MAP OF ADMINISTRATIVE Boundaries BINH THUAN

APPENDIX 3: ADMINISTRATIVE MAP OF HAM THUAN BAC DISTRICT

ANNEX 4: SURVEY BOARDS

Current status and needs of learning Cham characters.

----------------------

Please answer the following questions by: If appropriate, put an “X” in box □; and write the necessary things in the space marked with dot (……………………..):

1. Your birth year (sister):……………………; Male □ ; female

2. Ethnicity: Cham □ ; other

3. Occupation:…………………….

4. Currently residing in village………….commune……………

5. Education level (general, supplementary) grade:………….

6. Level of Cham script:

- I don't know Cham (haven't studied)

- Attended class ……………………

- Studied but became illiterate again □

7. How did you learn Cham characters:

- Self-study

- Primary School teaches

- Study through supplementary class □

- Another way

8. According to you, is it necessary to teach Cham characters to you now: It is very necessary to □; Need ; Yes, yes or no □; don't need

9. What do you learn Cham characters for:

- Learn the customs, habits and culture of the Cham people

- Preserving the Cham people's language and writing

- Other reasons………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

10. If you learn Cham, how do you learn it for convenience:

- Self-study □ ; Need a teacher

- Study at home □ ; Studying at school

- Study in groups (under 10 people)

- Study in class (from 10 people or more)

- Time to study: daytime □ ; night

- Other suggestions………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………….

11. Do you have any suggestions for learning Cham characters:

- About learning tools (notebooks, writing):

+ Learners take care of themselves (buy by themselves)

+ Partial state support

+ State fully provides for learners □

+ Other suggestions…………………………………………………….

- About the textbook

+ Learners take care of themselves (buy by themselves)

+ Partial state support

+ State loan

+ State grants to learners

+ Other suggestions…………………………………………………….

12. You can participate in teaching Cham characters:

- Okay □ ; If yes, what grade do you teach?

- no

13. You will nominate a person to teach Cham as Mr. (Mrs.)……………………, that person is currently in the village…………. ……………………; commune………… Sincerely thank you (sister)!

--------------------------------------------

APPENDIX 5: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Needs for organization of teaching Cham script.

----------------------

Please answer the following questions by: If appropriate, put an “X” in box □; and write the necessary things in the space marked with dot (..................................):

1. Full name of brother (sister): ................................................................................. ................................

2. Year of birth: ............; Male □ ; female

3. Ethnicity: Cham □ ; other

4. Occupation: ................................................................................. .............

5. Current religious dignitaries: ............................ ..........

6. Currently residing in the village ............; commune..................................

7. Educational level (general, supplementary) grade:.........

8. Cham language proficiency:

- I don't know Cham (haven't studied)

- Attended class .........

- Studied but became illiterate again□

9. According to you, is it now necessary to teach Cham characters to Cham people:

In need of □; Need □; Yes, yes or no □; don't need

10. If the organization teaches Cham characters, the subjects who need to learn Cham characters are:

- Between the ages of 15 and 20 years old □

- Between the ages of 20 and 25 years old

- Between the ages of 25 and 30 years old

- Between the ages of 30 and 35 years old

- Over 35 years old

11. It is necessary to teach the Cham script with the Cham script:

- Ancient (Akhar thrah) unmodified

- Ancient (Akhar thrah) has been modified and is being taught in primary school

- Cham characters in the style of using Latin characters to record Cham sounds

12. How to create favorable conditions for learners of Cham script:

- Support books, learning tools

- Open many types of Cham writing classes

- Always motivate and encourage the learning spirit of learners

- Elders are always exemplary in learning Cham characters

- Find a good teacher to teach Cham

- All the above measures

- Another way is ……………………. ................................. ................................. ..............................

13. What factors should a teacher teaching Cham have:

- Good at Cham characters □

- Studied a pedagogical training course

- Have good moral character

- Willing to participate in teaching Cham characters □

- All of the above

- Another factor:............................................. .................

14. Does learning Cham script affect learners' daily life: Very influential □; influence □; insignificant □; no effect

15. The organization of learning Cham characters will be successful or not:

- Success □, reason ............................ ..........................

................................. ................................. ..........

- Failed □, reason…………………….. .................

................................. ................................. ..........

Thank you very much, brothers and sisters!

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