MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
DA NANG UNIVERSITY
AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT NAM GIANG DISTRICT - QUANG NAM PROVINCE
Major: Development Economics Code: 60.31.05
SUMMARY OF THE MASTER'S THESIS OF ECONOMY
Da Nang - Year 2015
The work was completed at
DA NANG UNIVERSITY
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Scientific instructor: Dr. LE BAO
Reviewer 1: Dr. NGUYEN HIEP
Reviewer 2: Dr. Tran Huu Lan
Thesis was defended in front of the Judging Committee of the Master's Degree in Economics at the University of Danang on January 10, 2015.
The thesis can be found at:
- Center for Information - Learning Materials, University of Danang.
- Library of University of Economics, University of Danang
1. Urgency of the topic
Agricultural development is still considered a key issue determining the success of socio-economic development in general and industrialization and modernization in particular in many countries. Especially for Vietnam, a country with agricultural production as the foundation, agricultural development has always been paid great attention by the Party and State.
In that context, Nam Giang is a mountainous district of Quang Nam province, with more than 80% of the population being ethnic minorities, the economy is mainly based on agriculture, moreover, infrastructure and socio-economic conditions The district's association is still facing many difficulties, but the district's agriculture in recent years has also obtained positive results, gradually stabilizing a part of local food and creating a number of agricultural products.
However, agricultural production still has many shortcomings, agriculture has not fully exploited its potential advantages. Therefore, the analysis and assessment of the current situation of agricultural development in Nam Giang district on that basis, proposing solutions to overcome the inadequacies in agricultural production is an urgent requirement and a reason. because I chose the topic: "Agricultural development in Nam Giang district, Quang Nam province" as the topic of my master's thesis.
2. Research objective
- Systematize theoretical issues related to agricultural development.
- Analyze the current situation of agricultural development in Nam Giang district over the past time.
- Proposing solutions to develop agriculture in Nam Giang district in the coming time.
3. Object and scope of research
3.1 Research object
The object of the thesis is the theory and practice of agricultural development in Nam Giang district, Quang Nam province.
3.2 Research scope
- About the content: A number of issues on agricultural development, agriculture is understood in a narrow sense including cultivation and animal husbandry.
- About time: Propose meaningful solutions in the next 5 years.
- About space: In the area of Nam Giang district, Quang Nam province
4. Research Methodology
The general methods used in this study are:
- positivist analytical methods, normative analytical methods,
- Methods of comparison, analysis, synthesis,
- Other research methods...
5. Theme layout
In addition to the Introduction, Conclusion, Table of Contents, List of References, the thesis is divided into 3 chapters as follows:
Chapter 1: Theoretical issues on agricultural development.
Chapter 2: Actual situation of agricultural development in Nam Giang district, Quang Nam province.
Chapter 3: Some solutions to promote agricultural development in Nam Giang district, Quang Nam province.
6. Research literature review
THEORETICAL ISSUES ON AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT
1.1. OVERVIEW OF AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT
1.1.1. Some concepts
Agriculture is one of the most important and complex economic sectors. It is not only a mere economic branch but also a biological system engineering. Agriculture is understood in a narrow sense to include only crop production, animal husbandry and service industries. Agriculture is understood in a broad sense including forestry and fisheries.
b. Agricultural Development
Agricultural development is a set of measures to increase the output of agricultural products to better meet the requirements of the market on the basis of rationally exploiting resources in agriculture and gradually improving the efficiency of agricultural production. production fruit.
1.1.2. Characteristics of agricultural production
Firstly, agricultural production is regional in nature. Second, land is the main means of production.
Third, the object of agricultural production is plants and livestock. Fourth, agricultural production is highly seasonal.
1.1.3. The meaning of agricultural development
a. Agricultural development has great significance, which is to contribute to the market and factors
b. Agricultural development contributes to stable economic growth
c. Agricultural development contributes to poverty alleviation and food security
d. Agricultural development contributes to rural development
1.2. CONTENTS AND Criteria for ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT
1.2.1. Increasing the number of agricultural production establishments
Increasing the number of agricultural production establishments means increasing the number and size of agricultural production establishments. The increase in the number of agricultural production establishments is demonstrated by the multiplication of existing establishments, the development of new agricultural production establishments, the economic transformation between agricultural production establishments, for agricultural production establishments to develop and spread to other areas through which more establishments can be developed.
Criteria for increasing agricultural production facilities
+ Number of production facilities over the years (total and each type).
+ Growth rate and increase of production facilities.
1.2.2. Restructuring agricultural production in a rational direction
A rational structure of agricultural production is a structure between the branches of agriculture, whose components have the effect of promoting the potential of production and meeting the requirements of the market and society.
- Evaluation criteria for restructuring agricultural production
+ Proportion of production of industries and parts in the agricultural economy.
+ Proportion of added value of industries and parts in the agricultural economy.
The ratio of agricultural production value in the economy.
+ Ratio of production value of livestock in agriculture.
+ Rate of production value of crops and sub-sectors in agriculture.
+ Structure of labor distributed to industries.
+ Capital structure allocated to industries.
+ Structure of land allocated to sectors
1.2.3. Increase resource factors
The resources in agriculture include labor, land, capital, science and technology, material and technical foundations... The scale in terms of quantity and quality of resources mobilized is decisive to the speed of development. agricultural growth and development.
a. Labor in agriculture
Human resource in agriculture is the total amount of labor involved in agricultural production activities, including quantity and quality of workers.
- Indicators of labor resources
The size of the population structure.
+ Size and structure of labor resources.
+ Education level according to high school level and vocational training.
+ Level of income and expenditure calculated per household and person.
b. Land used in agriculture
Land is the main means of production that is not worn out and eliminated from the production process. If used properly, the land will have better and better quality, giving more products per unit of cultivated area.
- Criteria for assessing land resources:
+ Area and structure of agricultural land use.
+ Scale of land area for main agricultural production activities.
+ Size of land/household.
+ Production value and income calculated per unit of land.
c. Capital in agriculture
Capital in agriculture is expressed in money of means of labor and objects of labor used in the process of agricultural production. In a broad sense, land, infrastructure... are types of capital in agricultural production.
d. Technical facilities - agriculture
The system of material and technical facilities in service of agriculture, including tools and machines, the system of infrastructure in service of agricultural production, including traffic and irrigation; service system for farming and breeding...
e. Science and technology in agricultural production
Thanks to the knowledge of agronomy and animal husbandry, advanced technologies such as irrigation, mechanization, chemistry, and biochemistry are widely applied in the production and processing process... Agriculture is developing and serving people better.
g. Criteria to evaluate the increase in resource factors
+ Land area and land use situation.
+ Labor and quality of labor over the years.
+ Total investment capital and investment level per area.
+ Number and value of facilities in agriculture over the years
1.2.4. Progressive Affiliate Forms
Economic linkage in agriculture is the cooperation of partners along the value chain to bring agricultural products from production to consumption in order to find profitable opportunities.
- Criteria for evaluating economic links include:
+ Linking to ensure respect for the independence of agricultural production households with respect to ownership of means of production and production products.
+ The association must increase the competitiveness of agricultural products such as cost, design, and food safety.
+ Links must be sustainable and ensure appropriate distribution of benefits among partners, especially for farmers.
+ Link to ensure agricultural products meet the needs of the market .
1.2.5. Agriculture has a high level of intensive farming
Intensive farming has reached a high level thanks to the application of advances in science and technology to agricultural production such as mechanization, irrigation, biotechnology...
- Criteria for assessing the level of intensive farming
+ Total production capital and production cost per unit area.
+ Productivity of crops and livestock.
+ Quantity of pure organic and chemical fertilizers per unit area.
+ Good seed structure in the cultivation and husbandry industry.
+ Proportion of areas being irrigated actively and scientifically.
+ Value of products and goods produced per unit area and per worker.
+ The level of investment per unit of agricultural land and agricultural labor.
1.2.6. Increase agricultural production results
a. Agricultural production results
Agricultural production results are what agriculture achieves after a certain production cycle, which is expressed in terms of product quantity, product value, and production value of agriculture.
- Criteria for evaluating agricultural production results
+ Number of products of all kinds to be produced.
Value of products produced.
+ Quantity of goods and products produced.
The value of goods produced.
b. Increase agricultural production results
The resulting increase in production is the quantity and value of products, as well as commodity products and the value of agricultural commodities produced over the years.
- Evaluation criteria for increasing agricultural production results
+ Quantity of output value each year.
+ Growth rate and growth rate of output over the years.
+ Commodity products and product value over the years.
+ The growth rate and growth rate of products and goods, the value of products and goods over the years.
+ Contribution to the State budget.
+ Income of employees over the years.
1.3. FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT
1.3.1. Natural factor
1.3.2. Social factors
1.3.3 Economic factors
SITUATION OF AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT NAM GIANG DISTRICT, QUANG NAM PROVINCE
2.1. NATURAL, ECONOMIC - SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NAM GIANG DISTRICT HAVING AFFECT ON AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT
2.1.1. Natural features
a. Geographical location
Nam Giang district is a mountainous district of Quang Nam province. It is nearly 70 km from Da Nang city to the southwest, 120 km from Tam Ky province to the northwest, 70 km from Dac Oc - Dac Tac border gate to the east.
In general, the terrain in the district is mountainous and rugged, the degree of division is strong, it is difficult to arrange production, invest in infrastructure development, arrange concentrated residential areas and apply scientific and technical advances into production.
In summary, the climate of Nam Giang district has the common characteristics of a tropical monsoon climate with high humidity and high temperature, creating favorable conditions for the growth and development of many plants and animals.
d. Natural resources
* Land resources
* Water Resources
* Forest resources
2.1.2. Social characteristics
a. Population, population density, labor
Nam Giang district has 11 communes and 01 town with an average total population of 24,636 people in 2013. The average population density of the whole district is 13 people/km2. The total number of employees working in economic sectors is 16,469 people, accounting for 66.85% of the district's population. The number of employees undergoing vocational training from primary to higher is 4952 people. Labor in agriculture is 13,131 people, accounting for 80% of the total number of employees.
b. About social culture
As the residence of two main ethnic groups, C'Tu and Gie Trieng, Nam Giang preserves many unique cultural values.
2.1.3. Economic characteristics
a. Economic growth
In recent years, the average growth rate of production value in the district has increased from 10.2%/year in the period 2007-2010 to 13.4%/year in the period 2010-2013. , in recent years from 2010 to 2013 the industry - construction industry has an average growth rate of 22.1%/year; trade - service industry is 23.3%/year; agriculture sector is 7.4%/year.
b. The economic structure
In general, the economic structure of Nam Giang district has initially changed in a positive direction, gradually increasing the proportion of the industrial sector.
– Construction and trade and service sectors, reducing the proportion of agriculture sector. However, this shift is still slow, in the economic structure, agriculture still accounts for a large proportion.
c. Infrastructure features
In recent years, the district's socio-economic infrastructure has been interested in investing, expanding and upgrading, but it is still limited and has not met the development needs of the district.
As for the input market in agriculture, it is mainly done in the center of the district capital, Thanh My town and the center of communes.
As for the output market, some specialty products such as eucalyptus, bo bon, ta lap... are favored by the market, but due to the seasonal harvest, the output is dispersed, so they cannot be proactive in the market and prices. often precarious.
2.2. SITUATION OF AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT NAM GIANG DISTRICT QUANG NAM PROVINCE
2.2.1. Number of agricultural production establishments
a. Farm economics
Farm economy in Nam Giang district in recent years has developed rapidly, especially forestry farms. However, the number of farm economic models has increased rapidly but has not yet developed commensurate with the potential of the district. The application of scientific and technological advances in farms has changed, but there are still many limitations.
The cooperative model in agriculture in the district has not yet formed. Currently, the district has cooperative groups, but the number is still very small, not enough to serve as a basis to develop into cooperatives.
c. Agricultural enterprise
Due to the unsynchronized infrastructure conditions plus many adverse factors such as low labor quality, low education level, and underdeveloped agricultural services, there is not enough basis to attract agricultural enterprises. investment in the district.
d. Farm economy
Farm households are still the main actors of agricultural production in Nam Giang district. According to statistics, in 2013 there were 5323 households engaged in agricultural production in the whole district and this trend is increasing in the 2007-2013 period.
Table 2.4: Situation of agricultural production establishments in Nam Giang district over the years
two thousand and thirteen
(Source: Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of Nam Giang district)
2.2.2. Restructuring agricultural production
a. Agricultural restructuring
In 2007, crop production accounted for 59.6%, the proportion of livestock and agricultural services accounted for 36.9% and 3.6% respectively. In the period 2007 - 2013, the proportion of crop production tends to increase gradually from 59.6% to 62.1%, while the proportion of livestock industry gradually decreases from 36.9% to 25.6%, while the proportion of livestock industry gradually decreases from 36.9% to 25.6%. The agricultural service sector's share increased significantly from 3.6% to 12.2%.
b. Restructuring the farming industry
For the cultivation industry, in 2007 the production value of food crops accounted for 54.2%, starch crops 11.1%, legumes 16.3%, annual industrial crops 6.4 %, perennials 12%. By 2013 the proportion of trees
food accounted for 33.9%, starchy crops accounted for 6.4%, legumes 44.5%, annual industrial crops 4.3%, perennial crops 10.3%.
c. Restructuring the livestock industry
The proportion of the poultry industry in recent years tends to decrease gradually from 9.7% in 2007 to 5.8% in 2013. Meanwhile, the livestock industry has a relatively large proportion in accounting for more than 5.8% in 2013. 80% of industry structure; The proportion of services and livestock by-products tends to increase, but increases very slowly from 6.1% in 2007 to 9.3% in 2013.
2.2.3. Scale of resources in agriculture
In general, Nam Giang district has great potential for land, but in recent years, land use has not really brought high efficiency. There is still a lot of unused flat land that can be reclaimed and used for rice cultivation. Unused mountainous land can be converted into perennial crops, annual crops and forestry land.
The labor structure has not changed significantly, the total number of employees in agriculture tends to increase from 10,385 people in 2007 to 13,131 people in 2013. The average labor usage per hectare of agricultural land is from 0.078 to 0.086. labor/ha and for agricultural land is 2.12 - 2.42 labor/ha.
Funding for agricultural development is limited, mainly from support programs from the district and provincial budgets.
d.The application of science and technology to agricultural production
The application of advanced technology and equipment in production fields is still difficult, and the results of the application are still limited .