Elderly People Learn Cham Script In Ham Thuan Bac District, Binh Thuan Province

Managing the teaching of Cham characters to Cham people in Ham Thuan Bac district, Binh Thuan province - 3

Today, management is often more clearly defined: “Management is the process of achieving organizational goals by applying the activities (functions) of planning, organizing, directing (leading) and check” [28]. Or we can understand more concisely, management is the process of organizing and operating work to achieve the set goals.

1.2.2. Teaching

The essence of the teaching process is the interaction between the teacher and the learner. As subject:

– The teacher (subject of teaching activity – teacher) plays the leading role: deciding what to 1

– The teacher (subject of teaching activity – teacher) plays the leading role: deciding what to teach (objectives), how to teach (method).

– Learners (subject of learning activities – students) play an active role (cognitive subject): self-conscious, active, creative in learning[6].

1.2.3. Managing the teaching process

The teaching process is a cognitive process, everyone knows that the purpose of teaching is to make learners perceive the social experiences that mankind has accumulated over the centuries. The teaching process is a psychological process, because teaching must precede development and the development process does not take place equally, but each age has a corresponding main activity. On the other hand, the teaching process is a social process, an interaction between people and people, people and society; educational goals set by society.

Regarding the content of managing the teaching process, we can raise the following main issues:

* Manage the implementation of the plan and curriculum.

 * Manage the teacher’s lesson preparation and lesson preparation.

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 * Manage teacher’s class time.

 * Manage the activities of professional groups, time attendance and educational process

of the teacher.

* Manage professional records of teachers.

 * Manage the examination and evaluation of learners’ learning results.

 * Manage the teaching assignment for teachers.

 * Manage the process of training teachers.

 * Manage facilities and conditions to support teaching activities.

 * Manage classroom development planning.

 * Manage the training of teachers.

 * Manage the movement of learners to class.

 * Manage the issuance of academic certificates.

1.2.4. Cham characters

* Currently, the Cham people have different scripts corresponding to two regions of residence and two religions. The Cham Muslims in An Giang, from the 16th century learned Arabic script to read scriptures, they also used these characters to write the Cham language; The caretakers of Binh Thuan and Ninh Thuan regions have ancient Cham script, “the oldest inscriptions inscribed in this script were discovered around the 2nd – 3rd centuries AD”[18].

* Throughout their history, the Cham people in Binh Thuan and Ninh Thuan used the following characters:

– Akhar thrah (can be understood as a common word)

– Akhar yok (can be understood as mysterious word)

– Akhar atwer (can be understood as an abbreviation – hanging letter)

– Akhar kalimung (can be understood as scribble – the word spider).

All four of the above are ancient scripts, but only akhar thrah is used relatively widely and commonly; The remaining 3 types of letters are all variations of akhar thrah. In addition, “there is also akhar hayap which is the typeface used to write on stele; akhar rik means holy word, the ancient script is often used to capitalize in the heads of modern texts”[26].

* The akhar thrah was first systematically introduced by French scholars and used in the Cham-French dictionary (E.Aymonier, A. Cabaton), and then introduced in a treatise in Russian. on the Indonesian language (Arakin VD). Akhar thrah as well as all of the above are derived from one of the ancient South Indian scripts[26].

* The akhar thrah script currently used for teaching in primary schools has been slightly modified by the Cham Writing Board of the former Thuan Hai province (now divided into two provinces, Binh Thuan and Ninh Thuan) on the basis of the akhar thrah script. ancient, currently includes 65 symbols, including 41 letters and 12 legs (Appendix 1 Ancient Cham Alphabet).

* In addition, there are Cham letters in Latin characters compiled by the French. Before 1975, the American Institute of Summer Linguistics Monographs in Saigon compiled books to learn Cham according to the Latin alphabet[32].

1.2.5. Teaching Cham characters

It is to make learners aware of the akhar thrah writing system, which is currently used for teaching in primary schools, as well as being used to transmit information in the Ethnic and Mountainous magazine published by the Vietnam News Agency. .

1.2.6. Elderly people learn Cham script in Ham Thuan Bac district, Binh Thuan province

Adults here are mainly aged 15 – 45. They have some characteristics to note in the teaching process:

* With the age of 15-18

– In terms of biology: The children are in the period of strong development, there are many changes in psychology, easy to disagree; Mentally well developed, very convenient for learning and absorbing new knowledge.

– In terms of society: They are not really adults yet, are in the stage of preparation for adulthood, have the need to be independent, want to assert themselves, but they are still playful and have immature thoughts. easily frustrated or disgruntled when encountering problems, may easily drop out of school. Most of the children in this category are still in high school; the rest are learning a trade or have engaged in productive labor to contribute to their families to support themselves; Studying words Hard work is a secondary activity.

* With the age of 18 – 30

– Biologically: Mature, biologically insignificant development; ability to learn and absorb knowledge is still good.

– Socially: Mature, independent, capable of self-determination and self-responsibility, want to be respected by others. Most at this age, they are the main breadwinner and breadwinner in the family. In general, productive labor is the main activity for them; they have to both work and take care of their families and children, while studying is secondary, including learning Cham characters.

* With age 30 – 45

– In terms of biology: No longer developing, some functions of the body decline such as: hearing, vision, movement, attention, memory… Therefore, learning and acquiring new knowledge encounter many difficulties. towel. However, the intentional memory of the elderly is relatively more developed. Adults can focus their attention for hours if they find the problem practical, meaningful to them.

– Social: In addition to the same aspects as those at the age of 18-30, they also have more advantages, because they have more experience in life, think and work more mature. The sense of preserving the customs and language of the nation at this age emerged stronger. This is a very convenient feature for teaching Cham characters to the elderly, maybe they absorb it more slowly, but in return they will be more persistent in learning.

* The common characteristics of the 15 – 45 age group when participating in learning Cham characters, they have the following advantages and disadvantages:

– Voluntary, voluntary participation in learning. Intentional in learning Cham characters: how to learn? What’s the use of studying? Learn to assert your role in family and society.

– Most of them have heard, read and write quite fluently in Vietnamese.

– Most have a wide understanding of culture and society; experienced in life.

– The Cham language is available, so it is easy to pronounce when learning letters, easy to understand and remember Cham words.

– Consider studying literacy Hard work is a secondary activity, do not spend much time on studying, thoughts are easily scattered due to having to take care of other main jobs.

– Easily narcissistic, due to wanting to be respected and equal. They don’t want to be ordered, coerced or imposed.

Therefore, teachers need to properly assess the psychology and receptive capacity of learners, not overemphasizing age difficulties that lower the students’ ability to absorb; It is necessary to promote the learner’s activeness and experience, considering this a decisive factor to the adult’s learning outcomes of Cham.

1.2.7. Teaching Cham characters to elderly Cham people

Is to make the elders know the akhar thrah script. Psychophysiologically, this age is much different from the age at primary school. Therefore, their learning is somewhat different from that of children. Moreover, they already have a fairly good Cham vocabulary, so they have many advantages in learning Cham characters. A few things to pay attention to:

* Teaching focuses on creating conditions for learners to discover, build and create their own knowledge.

* Teaching focuses on organizing for learners to exchange, participate in discussions, and promote the positivity of individuals in groups.

* The purpose of teaching is not only to transmit knowledge, but mainly to change or develop existing concepts of learners, through which learners create new knowledge, and at the same time develop their intelligence and personality. me.

* It is necessary to create a learning environment that is fun, comfortable, trusting and respectful of each other. Sincerely help and motivate learners in a timely manner.

1.2.8. Managing the teaching of Cham characters for elderly Cham people

Management of Cham literacy is the process of planning, organizing, operating and controlling the teaching of Cham script, in order to enable Cham people who do not know the Cham script to know the ancient Cham script (akhar thrah).

1.3. Some theoretical issues related to the management of teaching Cham script for elderly Cham people

Regarding the specific content of the management of teaching Cham characters to the elderly Cham, we can raise the following main issues:

1.3.1. Managing the planning for the development of the Cham script class

– The Department of Education and Training assigns the main responsibility to the Principal of the primary school that is teaching Cham language to students, who is responsible for conducting a survey on the current status and needs of people in the locality to learn Cham script. then make a plan to develop Cham literacy classes for adults. This work is included in the school’s annual general classroom development planning. Supporting the Principal in this work is a teacher in charge of illiteracy eradication – education universalization in the commune, where the primary school is located, helping the Principal with data on age, educational level, …according to the universal education monitoring book.

– The Department of Education and Training will consider and approve the development plan to open Cham language classes for adults when approving the school’s general classroom development plan, and consider this as the basis for funding and staffing standards. for the school every year.

– In Article 3, Section 2 of the Primary School’s Charter, it is stated: “Implement the plan to universalize primary education and participate in illiteracy eradication in the community”[5]. Therefore, the assignment of the primary school that is teaching the Cham language to plan the development of Cham script classes for adults is in line with the primary school’s tasks specified in the Primary School Charter issued by the Ministry of Education. and Training issued. Moreover, these primary schools currently manage a team of teachers who are teaching Cham language to primary school students, who have extensive experience in teaching Cham. The school also has experience in managing a team of Cham language teachers. Besides, with the help and responsibility of teachers in charge of illiteracy eradication – education universalization, this job is also to support and contribute to the work of illiteracy eradication in general, including the task of eradicating Cham illiteracy, properly demonstrating the responsibility assigned to this teacher.

– The plan to develop Cham literacy classes for adults is also communicated to the local authorities at the commune level, which is considered an annual socio-economic development indicator of the local government. Based on this plan, the government will create conditions to help ensure security, provide material support and encourage the spirit of Cham teachers and students.

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