Chapter 1: THEORETICAL BASIS
1.1. History of problem research
1.1.1. The problem of teaching literacy (language) of ethnic minorities in the world
Many countries around the world have policies to encourage ethnic minority language learning for both children and the elderly.
In the United Kingdom, there is the Welsh ethnic group. The British government allows and encourages the teaching of Welsh. Every year, there is a Welsh language competition day.
In the Philippines, “for the peoples that already have a script, such as the Mangyans of Mindoro and the peoples of Ifugao, they teach ethnic languages, Filipino and English” .
The US, China, and Indonesia are multi-ethnic countries. In these countries, the government allows the organization of teaching ethnic minority languages to students in high schools and teaching ethnic minority elders with learning needs.
According to Marilin Gregerson, an American linguist, ethnic people can learn Mandarin “easily if they are first taught to read the language they are most fluent in”.
Maybe you are interested!
- Managing the teaching of Cham characters to Cham people in Ham Thuan Bac district, Binh Thuan province - 1
- Elderly People Learn Cham Script In Ham Thuan Bac District, Binh Thuan Province
- Manage The Implementation Of The Program And The Teaching Plan
- Manage Facilities And Conditions To Support Teaching Activities
F.B. Dawson and Barbara jean Dawson, in their article on the Summer Language Institute’s current contribution to the informal literacy program in Hanoi: “…the second project has the purpose of advising on the construction of develop basic reading materials in the H’Mong language for use in an experimental program for school dropouts and adults who have no opportunity to attend school”.
1.1.2. The issue of teaching ethnic minority languages in Vietnam.
A number of research works on issues related to Cham language such as: “Language of ethnic minorities in Vietnam and language policy” by Hoang Tue (1984); “Cham Literature: Essays and Selections” by Insara (1994); “Cham grammar” by Bui Khanh The (1996); Insara’s “Cham culture and society” (2003)…Through these works, it shows us that the authors all want to maintain and promote the values of good cultural identity in the community of ethnic groups. Vietnam, especially the Cham culture. However, there has not been a scientific work on the management of teaching ancient Cham script to the elderly Cham.
From here, it is suggested to us: Is it necessary to study the management of teaching Cham characters to the Cham people in order to contribute to the development of Cham culture.
22.214.171.124. Perspectives of the Party and State on teaching ethnic minority languages.
* Central Resolution in 1940 stated: “Each nation has the right to use its mother tongue in its education”.
* The 8th Central Resolution of the Indochinese Communist Party dated May 10, 1941: “The culture of each nation is free to develop and exist; mother tongues of peoples are free to develop, exist and be guaranteed”.
* The 1992 Constitution (amended and supplemented in 2001), in chapter I, Article 5, states: “Ethnic groups have the right to use their own language and writing, to preserve their national identity and promote their customs and practices. its fine traditions and culture”
* Education Law 2005, in Article 7, Section 2, states:
The State creates conditions for ethnic minorities to learn their own languages and scripts in order to preserve and promote their national cultural identity, to help ethnic minority students easily acquire knowledge. while studying in schools and other educational institutions; the teaching and learning of languages and scripts of ethnic minorities shall comply with the Government’s regulations.
* Law on universalization of primary education in 1991, Article 4 states: “Ethnic minorities have the right to use their own language and script together with Vietnamese to conduct primary education” .
* Decision No. 53/CP dated February 22, 1980 of the Government Council (now the Government) on the policy of writing for ethnic minorities, stating:
The language and writing of each ethnic group in Vietnam is both a precious capital of those ethnic groups and a common cultural property of the whole country. In ethnic minority areas, ethnic languages and scripts are used simultaneously with common languages and scripts. Along with the popular script, the ethnic script participates in many activities in ethnic minority areas, especially in preserving and developing the cultural capital of the ethnic groups (Section I.2). The Ministry of Education is responsible for guiding provinces to develop plans to teach general and ethnic letters in schools, general education classes and cultural enrichment appropriate to the actual situation and requirements of each region and each region. ethnicity (section III.1).
* Circular No. 01/GD-DT dated February 3, 1997 of the Ministry of Education and Training guiding the actual teaching of ethnic minority languages and scripts stating:
+ Implement the Law on Universalization of Primary Education, first of all, teaching ethnic languages (including spoken and written language) in kindergartens, primary schools, literacy classes and cultural enrichment classes. in ethnic minority areas. Diversify forms of teaching ethnic languages. Learners can choose the appropriate learning: studying at school, studying at home, in extra-curricular classes, learning ethnic languages after finishing primary school… Open classes to eliminate blindness letters for the elderly in hamlets, hamlets, villages and hamlets; ethnic language classes in the afternoon and evening… (Part 1. Some general principles).
+ In the immediate future, proceed to develop the program of Cham, Khmer, Thai, Tay, Nung languages and Ede, Gia Rai, Ba Na, Xe Dang, K’ho languages in the Central Highlands provinces (Part 2 Some specific jobs in the immediate future).
+ The continuing education major needs to quickly create the necessary conditions for the inclusion of ethnic languages in the eradication of ethnic minorities. First of all, carry out ethnic illiteracy eradication for the elderly who cannot afford to eliminate illiteracy in the national language script. After illiteracy eradication, it is necessary to have additional reading materials in ethnic languages to consolidate and improve their understanding of their mother tongue and language (Part 2. Some specific jobs in the immediate future).
126.96.36.199. Some authors’ views on teaching ethnic minority and Cham characters
* Hoang Tue:
+ A state of low-level, natural-level bilingualism, not only cannot promote positive effects, but also negatively affect the development of a small social community that is each ethnic minority. , and the large community is the entire Vietnamese nation…. Arguably the most desirable is a state of high level of bilingualism, cultural level, i.e. literary bilingualism, in that ethnic minority people have a full and deep sense of their mother tongue as well as about Vietnamese and have the ability to use Vietnamese literary and mother tongue well, gradually developing into a literary language. ].
+ Teaching ethnic letters and languages is a job that meets the legitimate aspirations of ethnic minorities…; Ngo Dinh Diem’s government did not allow minorities to learn minority languages, only forced them to learn Vietnamese… while the French compose Cham script in Latin with the intention of causing and forever fostering antagonism between the nations. ethnic minorities, especially in the strategic Central Highlands, with the Kinh. It is necessary to have a satisfactory policy towards languages with traditional scripts… However, looking at the past of ethnic integration, and looking at the present of development disparities between ethnic groups, it is impossible I don’t see that the Vietnamese nation is facing difficult problems… Languages that already have ancient scripts and Latinized scripts can be taught depending on the specific situation of each ethnic group. at the same time, both ancient and Latin letters can be used, or it is possible to teach ancient letters to the elderly outside of school and Latin letters to high school students .
* Bui Khanh The said:
+ In the set of Vietnamese languages, Cham is a language with a long-standing writing system, valuable literary heritage (both written and folklore) and is used frequently in common activities within the Cham community as well as in Cham-Vietnamese bilingual activities in areas where Vietnamese and Cham people live alternately .
+ Preserving and disseminating the precious values of traditional Cham culture recorded by the old writing system (ancient language), in order to help the current social development, causing legitimate pride for the people. Cham people as owners of a long cultural tradition, and at the same time a member of a diverse country in terms of ethnic and cultural composition…. Using a medium-sized form of education The State and the people to help the young Cham people have the necessary understanding of the traditional writing system (depending on their needs and willingness), thereby knowing the history of cultural development not only for their own nation, but for the entire ethnic community.
* Hoang Van Ma:
+ The Cham, the Hre, and the K’ho have almost the same population and enjoy the same equal policies. But the Cham language, the Cham script is associated with the Champa culture, whose influence spreads to many neighboring ethnic groups….For us, … also serves a practical purpose of studying the language. ethnic script to serve bilingual teaching, to improve people’s intellectual level and to preserve national cultural capital…. Moreover, only translated works will not have the conditions to filter out the essentials. the beauty from the language of the work .
+ Encourage the use of ethnic languages because the language remains the culture. Yes, the voice of a certain nation is a tool of communication, an expression of the nation’s soul, a sacred legacy left for eternity…. If the young are not trained in their mother tongue. Many good things are born, the original will be gradually forgotten. As a result, when speaking the ethnic language, the Vietnamese language is mixed unnecessarily; When speaking Vietnamese, the accent is immediately revealed .
+ Like the Cham language, it has lost its method of forming affix words…. For Cham, the situation is more complicated. The pronunciation of some words in this language has different nuances depending on gender, age, and level of understanding of ancient Cham texts .
* Insarsa (Cham people):
+ In order for ethnic language literature and literature to have the opportunity to germinate and develop deeply and widely, the teaching of ethnic languages plays a decisive role…. Since 1978, Cham script has been widely taught in schools. Primary schools had Cham children studying,… but then, because they did not have any additional reading books to improve or expand their vocabulary or knowledge of national literature, there were many cases where the talents did not have the opportunity. develop, or even the words that the teacher returned to the teacher…. The Cham voice and script, through which ancient Cham texts exist, are a common valuable asset of the multi-ethnic culture of Vietnam. To preserve it is to preserve the national identity, so that we will always be us, and not be swayed by the storm of mediocre material civilization that is infiltrating the society that all intellectuals in the world raise alarms about. …..
* Nguyen Van Ty, Head of the Compilation Board of Cham books in Ninh Thuan province stated:
The research on modern words by the Cham Book Compilation Board in Ninh Thuan province, and the corpus in ancient texts shows that the Cham vocabulary is very rich, diverse and on the basis of conditional traditional vocabulary. ability to develop new vocabulary classes. Since 1978, thanks to the formation of the Cham Book Compilation Board in Thuan Hai province (now Binh Thuan and Ninh Thuan), the ancient Cham script (akhar thrah) has been compiled and printed into a textbook, and included in the textbooks. taught in primary schools with a large number of Cham children, as well as in cultural enrichment classes for young people and the Cham population in the province .
* Phu Van Must (Cham people):
Teaching and learning the Cham language is necessary and legitimate, but it must satisfy the need to preserve the cultural capital of the Cham people, and must aim at the end result of being able to read ancient texts widely kept in the community. Vietnamese Cham people….Many mysteries related to ancient Champa texts will now gradually unravel.
* Nong Quoc Chan:
Some ethnic cadres also have incorrect attitudes and perceptions, considering the nation’s own handwriting as an obstacle to their children’s development!… Each citizen speaks fluently in two languages, writes and Being able to read the national language and ethnic script fluently will be a great advantage in the process of improving the cultural and scientific level and expanding the relationship between ethnic groups.
* A work on Conservation and promotion of Cham ethnic language and writing by a group of researchers from the Institute of Linguistics (Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences) investigated and surveyed in Binh Thuan and Ninh provinces. Thuan, two places where the majority of Cham ethnic people live, commented:
The traditional Cham script should be considered as the only and unified Cham script used by the entire Cham people in Binh Thuan and Ninh Thuan provinces. It is not allowed to manufacture Latin Cham script for the State organization because it is related to the interests of the Cham people. national interest, is the unity of each nation associated with the unity of the nation. In the mass media, the ancient Cham language is used as a basis in combination with the use of the variant Cham language in today’s society for broadcasting. This adjustment ensures communication purposes, Cham people understand Cham language, bring the voice of the Party and State to the people.
Currently, the demand for learning Cham language of the Cham people and people working in the Cham region is on the rise; Therefore, it is necessary to prepare textbooks to serve different subjects such as teachers, Cham people to eliminate Cham illiteracy. The state at the national level must play a decisive role in the writing of ethnic minority languages, and should not give decision-making power to localities, because the production and use of ethnic scripts The current number of numbers will lead to a situation where a nation can use different scripts because they belong to different administrative regions, and in the long run, there will be a risk of ethnic division.
* Hoang Thi Chau:
The need to write ethnic minority languages in writing is real and urgent of the elderly. Therefore, ethnic minority characters must first be popularized among the elderly, and then taught to children. When writing is available, the first thing is to eliminate ethnic illiteracy for adults, and firstly for officials to take notes in their workbooks, prepare speeches in meetings with the people, and write notes. newsletters before broadcasting, taking notes on folklore, composing their own works,….
Only when adults realize that writing is useful and indispensable in the community, they will teach their children themselves, ask to open literacy classes and encourage their children to go to school. At that time, the organization of mass teaching ethnic minority languages and letters for primary school children will be meaningful and sustainable .
It is necessary to take many measures to bring writing to life such as writing notices and hanging signs in public places in bilingual (ethnic minority languages and Vietnamese), especially in towns and townships .
In summary, the above views clearly show:
* Equal rights of languages in society are recognized by legal documents. The Party and State pay attention to creating conditions to help ethnic minorities develop language and culture.
* In institutions that teach ethnic minority languages, ethnic minority languages have been and are being taught as a subject, equal to other subjects in the national education system, with the aim of helping learners continue to learn. quickly and conveniently acquire knowledge imparted in ethnic languages and common languages, contributing to preserving the traditional languages, scripts and literary capitals of ethnic minorities.
* The need to open Cham literacy classes for Cham illiterate Cham people in hamlets, hamlets, villages, hamlets… with appropriate learning types: learning at school, learning at home, in schools after-school classes…
That affirms that our Party and State have oriented, allowed and created conditions for the Cham people to study Cham script, get rid of Cham illiteracy, and realize equality and solidarity in the community of ethnic minorities. ethnic Vietnamese, against distorting arguments of hostile forces about the national policy of the Party and State, especially in the current period. The view of teaching Cham characters to the Cham people is also strongly supported by linguistic researchers, ethnic intellectuals, Cham people and some foreign authors.
1.2. Some tool concepts
The concept of “Management” is defined differently on the basis of different approaches:
- According to FWTaylor, a practitioner of labor management and labor process research: “Management is the art of knowing exactly what needs to be done and doing it in the best and cheapest way”[ 28].
- According to A.Fayon, an economic management theorist: “Management is about bringing an enterprise to its destination, trying to make the best use of resources (its human, talent, and material resources)”.
- According to K.Marx: “Management is an indispensable function of social labor, it is closely associated with division and coordination”.
In Vietnam, researchers in the field of management science and in the field of educational science give different definitions:
- “Management is the purposeful, planned impact of the management entity on the collective of employees in general (the management object), in order to achieve the intended goals”.
- Management is the continuous, organized, and oriented impact of the managing subject (manager) on the managed object (managed), in an organization politically, culturally, economic, social, … by a system of laws, policies, principles, specific methods and measures, … in order to make the organization operate and achieve its goals, etc…[28 ].