Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 22

The expression means “no blood relation”, both referring to a stranger and just “the groom is a guest” in the family. This shows the Vietnamese concept of “in-law” (son’s wife) rather than “in-law” (daughter husband). This expression combines with opposites:

male Female; exterior; and this meaning is combined with the comparative point of view of Vietnamese people: male > female, inner > foreign. All of the above factors have made the position of “uncle” pushed further away. As a result, the status of “uncle” is not high. Therefore, the “uncle” social status does not meet the requirements of the positive function only according to the principles of courtesy and rights in MB. b/ Distinguish:

“aunt 1” : is the wife of uncle (mother’s brother and brother) (aunt/grandchild, child) “aunt 2” : is the role to call the mother’s brother’s wife (+), not to call the mother’s brother’s wife ( -)

“aunt 3”: is the sister, sister-in-law of the husband’s side or the wife’s side (wife of the brother’s brother, wife’s brother), (aunt/brother, sister, brother) “aunt 4”: is the father’s second wife (step-aunt) ) (depending on the place) “aunt 5”: is the way to call the role of husband and wife in families that think of nobility, luxury, urbanization (uncle – aunt) “aunt and uncle 6”: is the way to call the role of children with parents in families that consider nobility, luxury and some families with few children.

c/ Comment: Meaning “no blood relation” and combined with opposites: male/female; exterior. Combined with the comparative perspective of Vietnamese people: male > female, domestic > foreign. All the above factors have made the position of “dream” pushed further away. As a result, the status of “dream” is not high. Therefore, the “aunt” social status does not meet the requirements of the positive meaning only according to the politeness principle and the principle of interest in MB. [example (76), p. 132] However, when addressing MB, the Vietnamese still use the kinship word “aunt”, because of the concept of “grandchild’s father, mother’s crime”, or because the maternal side is more disadvantaged, so it deserves more attention. consider it possible to raise the position.

Besides, there was a time when Vietnamese people used “aunt” to refer to their biological mother and wife, so when the social status “aunt” was considered to raise a higher status. On the other hand, in the MB relation, the kinship word “uncle” is used less often than “aunt” because in this GT, the status of women is often higher than that of men because of the frequency of occurrence.

4.4.4.2. Considering the words “aunt”-“mús” The words “aunt” and “aunt” share two major meanings, namely, “no blood relation” and the same “gender” but opposite in meaning “internal > external” “.

a/ Distinguish:

“Aunt 1” : is the wife of uncle (father’s brother) (aunt/grandchild, son) “Aunt 2” : is the role to call the wife of one’s sister or brother-in-law (sister-in-law)- (sister-in-law), ( aunt/sister, aunt/brother)

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b/ Distinguishing the meanings of “dream” (reviewed in items b, 4.4.4.1) c/ Comment: the meaning “no blood relation” also pushes the position of “aunt” and “aunt” away. But comparing “aunt” and “aunt”, “aunt” has a much more intimate nuance, (especially in the Central and Southern regions). Perhaps due to the concept of “father and uncle” and “uncle is more sympathetic than “uncle” (the image of a greedy brother and a gentle, disadvantaged brother in a fairy tale motif), (because aunt is his wife’s wife). uncle).

Particularly in the Vietnamese heritage, these two terms of kinship are still used but at a low frequency. The position of these two words is difficult to compare, depending on the dialect, concept, and habit in each region, one word is used more than the other and vice versa. As in the GTMB of the Central dialect, people in this region use the word “aunt” to refer to a married woman in a cordial manner. And in situations with negative and negative nuances (unsatisfied), the Central dialect uses the word “mú” (eg 76, p131). In contrast, in the Northern dialect, the word “aunt” is accompanied by a respectful and luxurious nuance, and there is a clearer distinction between high and low than from “aunt”. Probably comes from two meanings: “aunt 5”: is the way to call husband and wife in families that think that they are noble, luxurious, urbanized (uncle – aunt); “auntie 6”:is a way of calling the role of children and parents in families that consider nobility, luxury and families with few children.

In different areas of GT outside of society, especially in the context of GT with a ceremonial nature, the words for kinship relations “uncle”, “aunt”, “aunt” are very rare or not used to address, but only perform the identification function. As for the value of the Vietnamese people, “uncle”, “aunt”, “aunt” still play their role. That is also a difference of social relations only kinship relations within MB with other GT ranges. However, it should be noted that depending on the conditions of the large – small, narrow, formal – informal, formal state administrative style – popular style of MB conversation, the frequency of use and The functional meaning will only be at different levels.

4.4.4.3. Considering the words “uncle”-“aunt” The words “uncle” and “aunt” share a great meaning, “having a maternal blood relationship”; “non-direct” and opposite in the meaning of “gender”.

a/ Distinguish:

“Aunt 1”: is the mother’s sister or sister (aunt/grandchild, child) “Aunt 2”: is a word for a woman with her husband to call her sister or sister, (aunt/brother, sister). ) “auntie 3”: is a word to address or call an elderly woman and corresponds to her parents’ shoulders with an intimate and close nuance (aunt/grandchild, child) “auntie 4”: is a word to an older woman calling another woman intimately; “Aunt 5”: is the word to call for the child’s role “Auntie 6”: the word used to call the stepmother (father’s step-wife) In the MB scope, the kinship word “aunt” is used. at a rather high frequency, especially in the Central and Southern dialects. Stemming from the meaning of “blood relationship” with the view “mother sucking aunt”, the user has elevated the status of “aunt” to a very close and intimate position, able to perform the function Politeness and effective attachment of interests.Example (102), B: Why didn’t auntie come over to your house to play for so long? Oh my god, do the little ones keep reminding you? Don’t you sneeze? (trying to form a friendly relationship); M: Damn it! My aunt is so sick these days, I don’t have any money! (Informal whining, implying an acceptable refusal to purchase.)

Of course, within the GTMB, the sixth meaning is “the word used to call the stepmother (father’s step-wife)” is not taken into account. Because it is a negative meaning of politeness and rights.” Although the words “mother” and “aunt” share three meanings (gender-generation-marriage), within MB, those meanings are counter-productive, making them counterproductive. for the “step-aunt” thought to be pushed away, not taken into account, because it is deeply affected by the principle of mutual rights, both literally and figuratively.Do the little ones keep reminding you? Don’t you sneeze? (trying to form a friendly relationship); M: Damn it! My aunt is so sick these days, I don’t have any money! (Informal whining, implying an acceptable refusal to purchase.) Of course, within the GTMB, the sixth meaning is “the word used to call the stepmother (father’s step-wife)” is not taken into account. Because it is a negative meaning of politeness and rights.” Although the words “mother” and “aunt” share three meanings (gender-generation-marriage), within MB, those meanings are counter-productive, making them counterproductive. for the “step-aunt” thought to be pushed away, not taken into account, because it is deeply affected by the principle of mutual rights, both literally and figuratively.Do the little ones keep reminding you? Don’t you sneeze? (trying to form a friendly relationship); M: Damn it! My aunt is so sick these days, I don’t have any money! (Informal whining, implying an acceptable refusal to purchase.) Of course, within the GTMB, the sixth meaning is “the word used to call the stepmother (father’s step-wife)” is not taken into account. Because it is a negative meaning of politeness and rights.” Although the words “mother” and “aunt” share three meanings (gender-generation-marriage), within MB, those meanings are counter-productive, making them counterproductive. for the “step-aunt” thought to be pushed away, not taken into account, because it is deeply affected by the principle of mutual rights, both literally and figuratively.imply an acceptable refusal to purchase). Of course, within the GTMB, the sixth meaning is “the word used to call the stepmother (father’s step-wife)” is not taken into account.

Because it is a negative meaning of politeness and rights.” Although the words “mother” and “aunt” share the same three meanings (gender-generation-marriage), within MB, those meanings are counter-productive, making them counterproductive. for the “step-aunt” thought to be pushed away, not taken into account, because it is deeply affected by the principle of mutual rights, both literally and figuratively.imply an acceptable refusal to purchase). Of course, within the GTMB, the sixth meaning is “the word used to call the stepmother (father’s step-wife)” is not taken into account. Because it is a negative meaning of politeness and rights.” Although the words “mother” and “aunt” share three meanings (gender-generation-marriage), within MB, those meanings are counter-productive, making them counterproductive. for the “step-aunt” thought to be pushed away, not taken into account, because it is deeply affected by the principle of mutual rights, both literally and figuratively.Although the words “mother” and “aunt” share three meanings (gender-generation-marriage), within MB, those meanings are counter-productive, making them counterproductive. for the “step-aunt” thought to be pushed away, not taken into account, because it is deeply affected by the principle of mutual rights, both literally and figuratively.Although the words “mother” and “aunt” share three meanings (gender-generation-marriage), within MB, those meanings are counter-productive, making them counterproductive. for the “step-aunt” thought to be pushed away, not taken into account, because it is deeply affected by the principle of mutual rights, both literally and figuratively.

b/ Distinguish:

“Uncle 1”: is the mother’s younger brother or brother (grandchild, child) “Uncle 2”: is a word for a brother or sister with his wife to call brother or sister-in-law (brother/brother, uncle/sister). ) “uncle 3”: is a word to call an old man and corresponds to his mother’s shoulder with an intimate and close nuance (grandson/grandson, uncle/child) “uncle 4”: is a word for a an older man who calls another man intimately (he/me).

“you 5”: is a word to call friends intimately (you/me).

“uncle 6”: is the way to call the role of husband and wife in families that consider nobility, luxury, and urbanization (uncle – aunt) “uncle 7”: is the way to call the role of children and parents in the family family considers nobility, luxury and some families have few children (he/she).

c/ Comment: The meaning of “blood relation” also pushes the position of “uncle” and “aunt” very high in GTMB. Of course, within the GTMB, the 8th predicate meaning of the word “he” is “the word used to address or call the boss (master-servant relationship)” is not taken into account. Because this meaning has a negative nuance about politeness and rights. In social values, the kinship word “uncle” – “aunt” plays an equally important role, because the starting point is identical in all meanings, only opposing each other in the meaning of “gender” count” only. But in different fields of GT, the word “uncle” has a higher position, more frequency of use with richer semantic variations than “aunt”. However, in the field of performing MB activities, on the contrary, the word “aunt” appears with a frequency many times higher than the word “uncle”, because the frequency appears in the MB conversation of female is higher than that of male.

Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 22 381

4.4.4.4. Considering the words “uncle”-“uncle”-“aunt” The words “uncle” “uncle” “aunt” share three major meanings: “blood related”, “not directly related”, “internally” and opposite in the meaning of “gender”.

a/ Distinguish:

“uncle 1”: is the younger brother of the father (uncle/grandchild, son).

“uncle 2”: is a word for people with their husbands to call their husband’s younger brother (uncle/brother, sister).

“Uncle 3”: is the word that a man uses to address someone worthy of his child’s age and is also called by people worthy of his or her age (uncle/grandchild, child) “Uncle 4”: is a word to address or call someone. Men are old and correspond to their father, uncle with intimate nuances (uncle/grandchild, son) “uncle 5”: is a word for an older man to call a man intimately smaller than themselves (uncle/ me, brother) b/ Distinguishing:

“uncle 1”: is father’s brother, or father’s sister-in-law – in Northern dialect also used to call father’s sister (uncle/grandchild, son).

“uncle 2”: is a word for a woman with her husband to call her husband’s brother (uncle/sister).

“uncle 3”: is a word to call a man older than his father (uncle/grandchild, son) “uncle 4”: is a word for a man who considers himself older than his father uncle/grandchild) “uncle 5”: is the word to call an older man who is worthy of his brother’s role in intimate social interaction (uncle/sister)

“Uncle 6”: is a word to call and address between relatively old friends (uncle/I) c/ Distinguish:

“she1”: the word used to address and call the younger sister, including the father’s older sister (aunt/grandchild, child).

“Miss 2”: is a word for a woman and her husband to call her husband’s sister-sister (she/sister, brother, sister).

“Miss 3”: is a word that a woman uses to address someone worthy of her child’s age and is called back by people worthy of her child’s age (aunt/grandchild, child) found to be the same age as their parents with intimate nuances (aunt/grandchild, child) “Miss 5”: is the word to call a woman of the same age or younger in communication. social (she/I, sister) “she 6”: is the word used in the husband and wife relationship (the husband calls his wife) (she/he, me) “she 7”: is the word addressed and addressed in the role of a teacher and student (she/mister, child) d/ Comment: the meaning of “blood relation” combined with the meaning of “internal > foreign” has really pushed up the position of these three nouns indicating kinship relations. very high.

At the same time, when they turn to socialism in social work in general, and in urban traffic in particular, they really have a very high social character. It must be affirmed that this group of words is under the extreme control of the principles of politeness, humility – respect, and guarantee of rights. However, the survey results also reveal another problem that is because of the social nature and high commonality, the meaningful component of the function only gradually fades the intimacy. Obviously, the process of translation is very vivid and complex, so it depends on the context that people use them appropriately.

(See example (93), p. 155): (sellers use social media with a kind of close interpersonal relationship in the sense of “uncle” (3), familial relationship type, respect, to But the buyer did not agree with the seller’s socialism because he wanted to express a different implication, and expressed his other YNHNH by changing from one kin to another, regardless of consent. or without the consent of the seller, in combination with a redundant OS). In GTXH, the kinship words “uncle” – “uncle” – “aunt” play an equal role, because the starting point is the same in all meanings, only differing in gender meanings. In which, the word “uncle” occupies the highest frequency, widest range, positive emotional nuance, but in MB it is not correct, “she” appears many times higher than “uncle-uncle”, because frequency appears in MB conversation, more female than male.

4.4.4.5. Considering the words “grandpa” “grandmother” “grandfather” “grandmother” have three major meanings in common: “having a direct blood relationship”, “generation of parents”, opposing each other in meaning “gender”. , “inside-outside” a/ Distinguish:

“grandfather 1”: is a kinship word used to both call and address the man who gave birth to both father and mother (grandfather/grandchild, child) “grandfather 2”: is the word used to address a man worthy of grandparents own: (grandfather/grandchild, child).

“Grandfather 3”: is a word to call a man who is the same age as his grandparents (grandfather/grandchild, child).

“Mr. 4”: is a word to call in a friendly relationship (Mr. / I) “Mr. 5”: is a word for a friend relationship with a negative tone (Mr. 6”: is the word to call the boss (grandfather/grandchild, child, me) b/ Distinguish:

“Grandma 1”: is a kinship word used both to call and address the woman who gave birth to both father and mother (grandmother/grandchild, child).

“Grandma 2”: is the word used to address a woman worthy of her grandmother’s age (grandmother/grandchild, child)

“Grandma 4”: is a word for friends to call each other intimately (Mrs. / I, I) “Mrs. 5”: is a word to call a person who is younger or maybe older than another woman with a different color. dense negative nuance (Mrs./I) “Mrs. 6”: is a word to address in friendship with a negative nuance (Mrs. , child, me) c/ Comment: the meaning of “having a direct blood relationship” really pushes the position of these two kinship words to a very high level, which is really very social when entering the social value. in general and GTB in particular. It must be affirmed that this group of words is also highly influenced by the principle of politeness, the principle of humility and respect, and the principle of ensuring rights. This is the pair of kinship words with the widest range of activities, the highest social character, and expressive nuances with the highest degree of respect. Perhaps stemming from the meaning of “old people”, “often have a living capital,life experience”, “usually reaching a high level in his career”, “having a social status”. As a result, these kinship terms have the most respectful shades. One meaning is so important that it overwhelms the others, and as soon as there is a connotation of this nuance, people immediately use them. This usage is present in many ranges, many styles in general and MB style in particular. However, the survey results also show that, in the process of interacting with this pair of words when entering social communication, it not only has a positive extreme expression but also a negative extreme, especially the word “” Grandma”.This usage is present in many ranges, many styles in general and MB style in particular. However, the survey results also show that, in the process of interacting with this pair of words when entering social communication, it not only has a positive extreme expression but also a negative extreme, especially the word “” Grandma”.This usage is present in many ranges, many styles in general and MB style in particular. However, the survey results also show that, in the process of interacting with this pair of words when entering social communication, it not only has a positive extreme expression but also a negative extreme, especially the word “” Grandma”.

That proves the process of interpreting the social society is lively and complex, because it is under pressure of habits, coupled with the arbitrariness of the process of agricultural activities. Especially in the case of deliberately violating the principle of address for the purpose of learning. Example (103):

M: Sis, this seems to be inventory, right? (criticize bad goods); B: Yes, what’s wrong with your eyes, ma’am? (TXH change- negative)

On the other hand, the process of studying the interaction of this pair of words in the context of MB also reveals a different problem. That is, social relations with only “grandparents” kinship relationships appear with a low frequency in the shopping mall, especially in markets with popular nuances and styles, but they have a high frequency in the shopping mall. color, administrative style. This will be explained in detail in the following section.

4.4.4.6. Considering the words “father/father” “mum/mam” The words “father” and “mother” have the same great meaning of “having a direct blood relationship”, and are opposite in the meaning of “gender”, “important” marriage system “”internal – external” a/ Distinguish:

“father1”: is a kinship word used to both call and address the man who has children, in relation to the child (may include biological son, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, adopted son) (father/son) “father” 2″: is a word to call a husband in a marriage relationship (father/me, brother) “father 3”: is a word used to address a man worthy of his father’s age (father/son) “father 4”: is word to address a man worthy of his parents’ age with an intimate and close nuance (father/son) “father 5”: is a word to call another man with a negative nuance (father/me, me).

b/ Distinguish:

“mother 1”: is a kinship word used both to call and address a woman with children, in relation to her children (may include biological children, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, adopted children) (mother/child) “mother” 2″: is a word to call a wife in a marriage relationship (mother/me, brother) “mother 3”: is a word used to address a woman worthy of her mother’s age (mother/child) “mother 4”: is word used to call a woman worthy of her parents’ age with an intimate, close nuance (mother/child, grandchild) “mother 5”: is a word to call another woman with a negative nuance (mother/ me, me).

c/ Comment: Although the two words indicating the kinship relationship “father” and mother” have the meaning of “having a direct blood relationship”, it is strange that this meaning is not realized much in reality. normally, especially within the GTMB.

Example (104): “Why are you paying anything, dad? Just opened the store!” (negative). This can be explained by the non-state because it is “unique” and “sacred”, “doesn’t want to share”. Even if we use these two words of kinship in the contract of sale, it comes from a derivative meaning: only “age”, “respect”, “love, intimacy”, “protection”…. Different from the example (105), B: Oh my god, why hasn’t it been so long since you visited our shop at all? (positive), (the seller uses the kinship word “mum” for the purpose of establishing a close relationship, for the purpose of selling); M: I’m so busy these days, my dear! Is the sale good these days? What kind of rice do you usually buy? (buyer in (105) responded with another PN containing another social network, which refused to establish this relationship for many reasons,Is there a reason to fear that the seller takes advantage of the intimacy and sells it too expensive?) It can be said that, in the ways of using the social justice system, only kinship relations are within the scope of kinship, the two words “father” “mother” “most special. The speciality is shown in the fact that, when used, they are pushed out by Vietnamese people in two extreme and opposite positions: one side is the highest positive, polite, polite, and expressive expression. the substance that establishes a familial relationship and on the one hand is the lowest negative shade :has the nature of creating a family relationship and on the one hand is the lowest negative shade:has the nature of creating a family relationship and on the one hand is the lowest negative shade:

vulgarity, condescending… Example (106), B:God! Why did you choose so well? There’s only 300! (positive). M: So cheap? Why don’t you always say 500 for even and say less? (buyers leave); B: Stop it mom! Did you know that you’re opening groceries for me? Mad! (negative), (the seller (106) saw that the target could not be achieved, and immediately changed the address in the statement containing the act of indirectly asking the next action in a condescending, sour way by using from kinship “ma” creates a negative, negative GT effect)

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