In addition, in dialogue 2, the reseller combines the use of the word “is less” at the end of the sentence to emphasize, boldly subjective mood: assessing a bag of rice is likely to be more than 10 pounds). All of them show the transliteration, the symbolism according to “common sense” in the usage and understanding according to the habits of Vietnamese people.
(The buyer in (107) continued to emphasize the objection to the seller’s subjective assessment, so he used the structure “these…” to carry out the transaction, in order to direct the listeners to the way understand “little” and “light”. That is how to use, choose words, structure words according to “common sense” bold ethnic culture identity.
It is necessary to extract the types of language selection to find out the specific cultural identity of the Vietnamese language, on the contrary, the characteristics of ethnic culture have an influence on the literary work.
5.1.5. Related basic concepts a/ Up to now, there are many different definitions of cultural phenomenon because of its complex and multi-faceted nature. Culture is a collection of results and processes of social activities including the accumulated material and spiritual values of the community and has the opposite effect of “playing an important role in the formation of each individual. individual human causes” [181, p.17], and at the same time, in opposition to the activities of external nature that do not depend on humans.
b/ What is VHDT? Each people born in the world has its own cultural tradition, forming its own identity integrated in the long historical development. Ethnographic culture is a complex and organic system, including material and spiritual values, in which language is one of the important elements, which is human-made, recreated and utilized for deal with the natural environment and the social environment of a certain ethnic community. Folklore is related to the concept of “local culture”[181, p. 17]: any local culture is a unity between what is universally human and what has its own particularity, including humanity. NN and non-NN elements.
c/ Ethnic culture characteristics expressed in agriculture (ethnolinguistics) which are motivated by sociolinguistics are factors in the system that regulates the differences between different ethnic groups in terms of organization, function, and manner. carrying out the GT process, has been influenced by specific factors associated with folklore.
d/ NN is a product formed and developed along with the development of man himself, both biologically and socially. Therefore, the YNH of OS in GBM has a close relationship with many sciences such as socialization, ethnology, archeology, psychology, semiotics….
5.2. FEATURES OF Ethnic Culture With Hidden Meanings EXPLAINED IN THE PERSONAL PERSONALITY OF VIETNAM TRADITION 5.2.1. Characteristics of the cognitive culture In the process of existence and development, the Vietnamese cultural subject has had a very specific and dialectical perception of the subjective and objective world based on the law of the world. from sensory perception to rational perception. That has directly influenced the way GT often starts with specific problems but often involves deep YNH, not simply understood on the surface of PN. For example (45, tr101), M: Why was the noodle soup so sour yesterday? (buyers have used PN containing the transaction price: ask to criticize; scold the seller with a very specific problem; imply to buy cheap goods for this or next time); B: Maybe it’s because of the dipping sauce? But okay,Did you balance your loss yesterday? (the seller responded by means of a contract of sale to defend the goodwill and also showed that he understood the buyer’s intention, and upgraded it to a very reasonable contract of promise…) 5.2.2. Characteristics of the community organizational culture The outstanding Vietnamese cultural feature is the community nature: derived from agriculture associated with wet rice, dependent on nature, so Vietnamese rural organizations are very closely linked. closely according to the main factors: factors of bloodline organized into families and clans, factors of residence area organized into hamlets and villages, factors of administrative units organized into villages and communes, factors of occupation Because of being forced to live within a certain framework, Vietnamese rural organizations uphold the principle of stability, in order to force people to stick with their villages for a lifetime. The result is a closed, narrow lifestyle,unable to develop industry and commerce in the village bamboo ramparts. Another feature is autonomy, self-contained, self-sufficient internally, making people living in an organization have no need to exchange goods. Industry and commerce have traditionally failed to develop for three main reasons: Society has no supply and demand; State policy also respects farmers and trades; in the occupational society MB is ranked in the last position, secondary. The principle of respectful living also contributes to the underdevelopment of our country’s trade. Agrarian society takes affection as the most important factor, while industrial and commercial society givesIndustry and commerce have traditionally failed to develop for three main reasons: Society has no supply and demand; State policy also respects farmers and trades; in the occupational society MB is ranked in the last position, secondary. The principle of respectful living also contributes to the underdevelopment of our country’s trade. Agrarian society takes affection as the most important factor, while industrial and commercial society givesIndustry and commerce have traditionally failed to develop for three main reasons: Society has no supply and demand; State policy also respects farmers and trades; in the occupational society MB is ranked in the last position, secondary. The principle of respectful living also contributes to the underdevelopment of our country’s trade. Agrarian society takes affection as the most important factor, while industrial and commercial society givesprofit, money comes first. In order to survive and develop, the MB profession must find ways to increase illicit profits, so the MB profession often finds ways to cheat to achieve the above purpose, making this profession unappreciated by society. With the purpose and principle of taking advantage and dealing with the human and social environment, sellers often have an aggressive personality to dominate. Sellers with a tradition of “respect”, fearing to offend buyers, force them to know how to use the roundabout GT culture, with flexible, flexible and variable language arts, so there is a situation where sellers speak challenges, insinuations far and near, and buyers haggling around are traces of the reasons mentioned above.
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As a result of community characteristics, Vietnamese people like GT very much, so that GT culture has developed richly and diversified in the art of using words, especially the art of indirect speech.The art of using the OST to create implicit messages. GT competence is always associated with good words, beautiful, delicate, thoughtful, polite words “speaks do not cost money, choose words to please each other” has really gone deep into GT traditions and habits. of Vietnamese cultural identity. That traditional GT habit of the Vietnamese people, the more necessary, the more specific, the more used in MB. It is the practice of gender equality with PN containing the GT signifying an allusion for the purpose of ensuring material interests, going with the counter-argument, keeping the face, and keeping the face in the social heritage of the agricultural culture.That traditional GT habit of the Vietnamese people, the more necessary, the more specific, the more used in MB. It is the practice of gender equality with PN containing the GT signifying the allusion for the purpose of ensuring material interests, going with the counter-argument, keeping the dignity, and keeping the face in the social heritage of the agricultural culture.That traditional GT habit of the Vietnamese people, the more necessary, the more specific, the more used in MB. It is the practice of gender equality with PN containing the GT signifying the allusion for the purpose of ensuring material interests, going with the counter-argument, keeping the dignity, and keeping the face in the social heritage of the agricultural culture.
The consequence of a respectful lifestyle and self-discipline, being closed in a tight environment is the habit of inquisitiveness and the need to learn about GT objects. At the same time, the principle of respect also creates the habit of Vietnamese people to often feel responsible for caring for others. The need to learn and evaluate issues related to GT objects such as: occupation, age, … Foreigners do not understand this habit. The art of GTMB of Vietnamese people does not escape this orbit. Habits of roundabout speech and habit of needing to learn about objects are the two main factors that make up the traffic system with many layers of YNH in the Vietnamese people’s communication. Vietnamese people have habits derived from beliefs and customs: burning to release bad luck, opening goods, taboo.
5.3. TYPES OF LANGUAGE SELECTION EXPRESSING THE UNIQUE CULTURAL INDUSTRY OF Ethnic Cultures IN COMMUNICATION OF BUYING AND SELLING 5.3.1. Ethnic cultural characteristics show the choice of words to address kin. When ethnic minorities are born, individuals in the ethnic community are forced to be subjected to strict regulations of social rules and religious rituals with psychological characteristics. national law and culture. Social society is a means to reveal social interaction and to perform the functions and activities of the nation’s foreign affairs, in which social relations only kinship leave a bold mark in the national cultural identity. (This issue is studied in chapter 4 of the thesis).
5.3.2. Ethnic culture shows the choice of translation and symbolic meaning YNHNH is also the result of reflecting the reality and experience of social history and human consciousness, in which the people here are representatives of a foreign cultural community. certain. In different languages, there are often no words that are completely identical in terms of semantic characteristics, behind them are different meanings, there are elements unique to a certain culture. One of the elements imbued with Vietnamese national identity to express YNH NH is the translation and symbolic meaning, because the association in the translation is determined by historical conditions, living circumstances, and the surrounding world. . The specific psychology of a cultural community leads to different meanings of different languages. The ethnographic feature of the translation is also contained in the fact that it exists only in one language but not in another.This issue has been carefully studied by us in [section 22.214.171.124, p.138] of the thesis.
5.3.3. Folklore shows reason in the identification and selection of linguistic signs. Ethnic culture features are contained very clearly in the selection of attributes, typical features, of the nature of specific things and phenomena. NN signals are not purely arbitrary, but they often contain rationality derived from the practice of a people. We rely on the rationality of ethnic culture to create the very own YNH of a certain language-using community. It is it that helps us to identify the YNHNH in certain frameworks even though they have many layers of very rich and diverse meanings. Reasonability depends a lot on the objective and subjective practical conditions of a nation. This issue is considered in [section 126.96.36.199, p.141] of the thesis.
5.3.4.Ethnic culture shows associations, observations to choose symbols Each ethnic group shows a different thinking style, because each ethnic group has the choice of the essential characteristics of things according to the nature of things. Each viewing angle is different and the object will be identified differently, and the choice of symbols for the PNs to express the meanings is also different. Why this nation chooses this feature and not another like other people depends a lot on their associative thinking and different ways of observing. Associative thinking and observation of each ethnic group are influenced by: different scope of reality; different opinion; different concepts; different views reflect different aspects and sides of the same thing or phenomenon; different nuanced styles, feelings, levels of expression; different social taboos; different information GT needs;the phenomenon of borrowing and infiltrating countries with different close contact; Whether the usage habits are appropriate according to different time; different aspects such as: culture, color, location, function, nature, locality, occupation… of each social community.
Associative thinking plays an important role in creating the unique characteristics of each ethnic farming community. For example, the same thing or event in objective reality, but one nation pays attention to the HT characteristics, another nation pays attention to the functional characteristics, this nation prefers generalizing thinking, ethnicity. Others prefer concrete thinking. For example (108), the British call the concept “cheap”: (a lower-than-normal price level); (or rate the level of not being worth much). The Vietnamese call many words corresponding to more specific concepts: “cheap”, “poop”, “cheap”, “cheap”, “cheap”, “cheap”, “cheap rattan”. “unexpectedly cheap”, “barbaric cheap”, … the concept of “cheapen”, “abatement”, “shell out”, and in Vietnamese “lower price”, “discount”; “depreciate”; “drop in price” ;”fall in price”;”fall in price”;”below capital”;”fall in price”;”fall in price”;”fall in price”;”decrease in price”;withdraw in price”;”decrease in price”;”withdrawal price”… The way to identify things in the real picture of the world around by Vietnamese thinking is often specific. As a result, the associative thinking and the way of observing and choosing PN symbols of the Vietnamese people are very specific, rich, diverse and subtle.
5.3.5. Ethnic cultural characteristics show the multi-meaning structure of the word The problem of Ethnic culture characteristic shows the multi-meaning words studied in [section 188.8.131.52, p.143].
5.3.6. Ethnic cultural characteristics are expressed in synonyms – near-meaning words The system of synonyms and near-meanings of each language is imbued with cultural identity, which plays an important role in the modes of expression of the ethnic community. use that NN. The same goes for Vietnamese, especially in the context of Vietnamese people’s values, the richer and more diverse they are. Perhaps this, more or less, has its roots in the small-scale, small-scale and fragmented development that comes from the tradition of the agricultural and craft economy. It is necessary to recognize in a really demanding way that our economy is still weak and not at international level. Our MB words are less terminological. Because of the scope of traffic rights, Vietnamese people are sensitive, prefer to choose and use synonyms and close-meaning words to express accurately and subtly in appropriate contexts. Meanwhile, in the scope of trade turnover of modern advanced countries,The vocabulary used in their MB has often been raised to a system of international, single-meaning, and highly unified terms. We can find the synonymous variation based on the mean index of an NN using the following formula:
W – TT
Let W – word = the number of words of a meaning field of a NN; Let T -thing be the corresponding number of concrete or abstract things and phenomena within the scope of that field of meaning. If formula index = 0, then that NN has no synonymous variation.
In fact, there is no language where the number of things, phenomena, and concepts coincides with the number of words used to identify things and phenomena from many different angles. The results show that the synonymous variation index is always higher than the objects, phenomena and concepts in objective reality. The higher the synonym variation index of a NN, the greater the number of synonyms and near-meanings of that NN, the richer and more diverse it is. The index of synonymous variation in any given NN is the average of the synonym index of the subfields of that NN. According to comparative statistics based on the vocabulary field of international trade names in Vietnamese and English, the following results are obtained:
English has used 198 words to identify 149 specialized concepts used in international commercial MB. In Vietnamese, 245 words are used to identify 149 specialized concepts used in international commercial MB. In English, the number of words and trade terms with a synonym variation ratio is (198-149)/149=0,32=32%. In Vietnamese, the rate of synonym variation is (245-149)/149=0, 64=64%. The above statistics reflect the richer, more diverse way of observing and naming things and phenomena of the Vietnamese people in the World Heritage Site, from many different angles.
5.3.7. Features of folklore with the selection of predicate groups with absolute expressive nuances and high degree of expression [See section 184.108.40.206, p.146].
Through the survey, we found the following 2 groups:
+ Groups of predicates and predicates indicating positive emotional nuances: bong, chong, avoid, leaf, tire, lu, whip, rui, lang, muo, fem, fem, liquor, mm, tap, dang, au, phuong, complex, cha, Tinh, tonh, namh, branch, dazzling, mellow, tray, dat, nug, + Groups of predicate and predicate indicating negative emotional nuances: baggy, cool, hoon, chubby, sloppy, pheasant, mole, cluster, branch, snooze, swarm, lull, loose, squishy, squishy, etc., Let’s try to examine the example (109):
B: Auntie, Buy papaya, auntie? Do you think it’s delicious? Golden ha ha! It’s been a while since I’ve had this item in stock, auntie! (the seller used the predicate “golden” with an absolute expressive element in favor of the effect of positive arguments in the allegorical announcement to the listener that compliments the good and beautiful goods -> should buy); M: Well, it’s golden, and it’s fine! It must be a compulsion right?… (Buyers whose PN responded to other messages also implied, with another predicate containing opposite shades of meaning, biased towards negative orientation for sellers implicitly criticizing bad goods → not buying. , let’s sell it cheap) When using this predicate system to create YNHANH, we must necessarily rely on context. Only then can the expression orientation be determined. However, the field of traffic management is very complicated, so the orientation is very difficult. Therefore, we have determined the expressive direction on the basis of looking up the meaning of words in the dictionary,combining semantic – pragmatic analysis of words in the actual survey, at the same time, we also pay attention to the basis of investigating the sentiment and usage habits of native speakers.
In summary, the predicate – predicate system has absolute expressive nuances and shows a high degree of cultural identity of the Vietnamese people in GT in general and in the operating system of MB in particular. First, very expressive; second, strongly showing dynamic and flexible, unpredictable change; third, has a very high value of guiding arguments.
5.3.8. National cultural characteristics are expressed in idioms – proverbs.
Vietnamese idioms and proverbs are a cultural entity, imbued with ethnic cultural identity. This issue has been carefully studied in [section 220.127.116.11, page 147] of the thesis.
5.4. CONCLUSION With delicate and polite requirements in business communication , all means of creating implicit meanings in the mechanism of Vietnamese cultural type are mobilized and utilized to the fullest as a material, stimulant, etc. indispensable activity towards the implicit communication effect specific to the choice structure.
In the process of making the most of the above means of creating implicit meanings, transactional communication not only clarifies the expression of implicit meanings through inherent levels and categories associated with a particular type of language itself. Vietnamese language, but it also contributes to enhancing the expression of that hidden feature to reveal more about a communicative cultural nuance that can be present in the heart of the language from the increasing pressure of pragmatic vision.
Through the results of our research, the language in the topic of buying and selling, especially in the implicit meaning of the act of asking in the buying and selling conversation, is imbued with national cultural identity, showing specificity and intuitiveness. , image, diversity, richness, intelligence… That creates a unique and distinctive point of Vietnamese people. The issue also proves that the Vietnamese language is rich and beautiful. In order to build and develop the country, we must develop Vietnamese language – a communication and thinking tool imbued with the identity and cultural values of the Vietnamese nation.
In the reality of life in general and in commercial communication between Vietnamese and Vietnamese, between Vietnamese and foreigners, the problem of understanding the characteristics of the Vietnamese national cultural identity in general and the cultural identity of the language – Thinking, especially in the area of economic and trade topics in particular, is a necessary issue for us to integrate with the global trade economy.
CONCLUSION From the problems studied through the chapters posed at the beginning of the thesis, we can come to the following conclusions:
1. Buying and selling is the environment for generating and testing the existence values of statements containing the act of asking. We have studied aspects at different levels of explicit direct questioning, especially paying attention to indirect indirect questioning.
2. If the act of asking in buying and selling is specific, then the act of asking indirectly in the form of a discourse associated with the choice structure is a highly specific expression.
The first focus of the thesis is to analyze CTLC – a form of meta-segmentative language structure that creates a system of comprehensive linguistic units according to the association system. This both explicit and implicit CTLC is actually a type of structure that establishes GT’s validity in an allegorical direction, taking the explicit structure as the containing HT. The structure of choice is actually the result of making full use of three main constitutive elements, namely: non-verbal factors, contextual factors, pressure from presuppositions, presuppositions, combinations of selection of linguistic elements in the mechanism of creating implicit meanings according to the principle of transcoding from the semiotic mechanism, through sociolinguistic factors of a class of users who are active, familiar, and active thinking users. maximize the profound social nature of language, through the individual associated with the specific characteristics of the specific communication environment.
3. Detecting and explaining the formation and operation of the structure that divides the meaning level according to the association system (not according to the type of reality segmentation according to the paradigm) and is highly implied as the above-mentioned CTLC, because So, it can be considered as a good opportunity for us to expand our understanding into the higher levels of pragmatics.
4. With the above view, we consider selection structures to be meta-linguistic conventions, because although they are established from language codes, in fact, their communication effectiveness is often no longer based on on the inherent meaning of language. In other words, the real language here has been suppressed, coded in a non-linguistic direction and vice versa, it can be said that this is also the process of linguizing non-linguistic elements. The problem posed and explained here has really opened up a new and wide connection angle of scientific vision, on the basis that it is impossible to escape from the radical view of the theoretical mechanism of semiotics with the addition of cognitive linguistics, sociolinguistics, culturology… 5. We also study the ways in the mechanism of semantic meaning creation in pragmatics. It is a violation of the pragmatic principles of methods of projection;speech rules; conversation rules; The argument rule belongs to the choice of the linguistic element, which is one of the three structural elements in CTLC to create implicit meaning, in the relationship between the coder and the decoder. Here the coder cannot fail to pay attention to the principle: the speaker must, on the one hand, respect the pragmatic rules and assume that the listener knows, on the other hand, intentionally violate the pragmatic principles and assuming that the listener can also explain that his violation comes from some familiar inference mechanism in the native perceptual knowledge, from the common cultural ground of the community, so that they can ” overcome” the violation in order to understand each other’s intentions. Thus, when using the principles of violating the pragmatics of the discourse mechanism, the CTLC cannot help but rely on the understanding of each other’s intentions in the psychology and communication contexts between the partners.All of the above factors have overlapped and depended on each other, on that basis, have really opened up a very wide potential for pragmatic functionalism for linguistic forms in the form of referential expressions containing actions. Asking is used as an explicit message in GT sales.