Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 20

The cultural feature of the transformation is that it exists only in one country but not in another. Example (86), M: How much is this fish per kilogram?; B: There are 20 thousand ha, uncle! (cheap, should buy); M: 20 thousand? (expensive, do not buy) The modal particles in (86) are understood in their original sense as vanity words, but when entering the context (86) they have changed into the meaning of real words. When foreigners listen to these PNs, they certainly can’t understand why the same ND announcement accompanied by: “yes … ha” means cheap and they can’t fully understand YNHÂ them as analyzed above.

We can compare the PN in (86) with (87) the following to see the difference, B: “20 thousand, uncle!” (PN (87) contains the message of the legitimate PNH, does not contain the YNH NH like (86) Objects and phenomena in the objective world have different properties and characteristics. They are the basis of the meanings. The characteristics of ethnic culture are most clearly shown in the process of creating these meanings.The selection of characteristics of the object as the basis for the translation process is regulated by the different attention of each ethnic group. For example (87), M: How much is this?; B: 2 tickets, sir?; M: I think you think you’re crazy? The other day, I bought it for half the price I said. !…

This characteristic of ‘nai’ is transferred to humans, and from then on to mean ignorance, prone to bullying in bargaining in MB). The symbolic meaning is derived from the habit of using and thinking of a community or a nation. They are explained in the form of figurative meaning, which is clearly symbolic in the direction of conventionalization and generalization of each ethnic group, when it comes to one, people immediately think of the other, for example images. “deer” to the Vietnamese in (87), often has a symbolic meaning, expressing innocence and ignorance about a certain issue. For example (88),

M: How much is this bag?; B: Oh my god, you really have a good eye, you know that brand name?; M: Is this set too expensive?; B: Then you get what you pay for! There are thousands!; M: Do you think I’m a rich person? (With the Vietnamese habitual way of thinking, “good eye” when choosing goods in (88) is synonymous with the symbolic way of thinking is “choosing good goods”; once the seller praises himself for good goods, follow them. with the same quality as the price of the goods; “brand name” means “special, untouchable, not identical with any other bags available on the market, ensuring the uniqueness of the product.” products”, along with the exclusivity of the product will be “the guarantee of the registered trademark” and of course the price will be higher than the mass-produced products.

With such a symbolic understanding, the buyer at (88) immediately understood and expressed it with a VAT policy that, on the surface, did not seem to match the seller’s PN just issued, but clearly the buyer decoded in the right direction and coded the equivalent new code to answer. The seller then responds to the price, and the buyer also responds with a price action, implying a negative YNH, refuting the seller’s intention with the phrase “people with money” which usually means the type of person (easy to make money); (have a lot of money, so it is often less valuable); (or spend money without thinking carefully)… 3.2.6.4. Cultural schema on the selection of attributes and characteristics of things Speaking of this cultural labor, we are also talking about the rationality in identifying and choosing symbols of PN to create YNH.

Any NN notation denotes properties that have been abstracted from the background of concrete things. The characteristics of folklore is very evident in the selection of attributes, typical features, of the nature of the object and the conceptual classification of the object to serve as the basis for the name in the identifier and also in the selection of the symbol. NN creates YNHANH in units larger than the word PN. That is the rationality between the notation NN and YNHNh. YNHNH is most clearly expressed in certain rational cases from the practice of a nation, that is, based on a certain basis to create the very own YNH NH of a community using agriculture. certain. This feature helps us to define YNHANH, which is rich and diverse but still within a defined framework.

In the history of NN, perhaps there is no NN that takes a meaningless number of units to express YNH NH but must choose a reasoned characteristic as the basis for the problem. It depends very much on the broad objective reality conditions such as: labor process, cultural traditions, geographical circumstances…, and narrow objective practical conditions such as GT context, GT role attitude, etc. Purpose of GT… Although the actual conditions are diverse, each ethnic group has a tendency to choose its own intentional characteristics as the basis for YNH NH. Therefore, the value of semantic expression in each language of each ethnic group is not the same, not exactly the same. Depending on the selection of different criteria, we can divide reasonability into: Based on objective-subjective criteria: objective reasons and subjective reasons Based on broad and narrow criteria:reason in broad sense and reason in narrow sense Based on external and internal criteria: external reason and internal reason Based on HT and ND criteria: we have HT and ND reason Based on criteria intentionality of the subject: there are intentional reasons and non-intentional reasons… Among them, we emphasize subjective reasonability. Most YNHÍ have a starting point of subjective rationality which is closely related to the encoding structure and decoding structure of the transmitter and receiver. Therefore, the subjective rationality of each role of GT in both artistic and non-artistic languages ​​is the most important feature in YNH. Subjective reasons are not always easily recognized. We realize that language is subject to subjective reasons, not completely arbitrary as F. De Sausurre has commented. Example (89), M:The market these days don’t like this much, do you? (Buyer who chooses the topic “the market doesn’t like” is completely his own subjective reason, that is, because of the “dislike” reason, it leads to a negative conclusion, for the purpose of criticizing the product is no longer suitable. to suit customers’ tastes or to buy cheaply;…); B: Isn’t that right?

There are no goods for sale, sister! Can’t you see I only have a little left? (The seller has expressed disapproval and negative attitude to the above opinion of the buyer, although these are meanings that are not on the surface of PN. When the seller chooses the topic “no goods to sell” is have their own subjective reasons, for the purpose of refutation and also have the intention of praising good goods, goods that are very suitable to customers’ tastes, this also has a basis for sellers not only to not sell cheaply but also to sell the price is higher, for the reason that the goods are selling well, it is impossible to sell cheaply…); M: The model is over but you act like I’m up and down? Surely there’s only a few left? (The buyer continues to argue and counter the seller’s allegorical opinion with the topic “the model is gone”, which means that the goods are outdated and also mean that the goods are old, the goods are not new,not a scarce product, but a stockpiled product…, having his own subjective reasons for the purpose of criticizing the goods and to deny that the seller cannot sell at a high price; … choose the topic of the discourse “do as in up and down”, which means that the buyer implicitly informs the seller that he is not someone who is easily fooled or deceived.

 The starting point of this inference of Vietnamese people is that if they stay “up and down”, they are either in the mountains, in remote areas; or in the rural areas are honest, spontaneous, not smart; or a vague person, in a faraway fairyland of ancient fairy tales, unable to keep up with information, modern life rhythms of city people… accompanied by a negative expression…). YNH NH starts with the subjective reasonability of the individual, gradually expanding into the habitual and conventional thought of an ethnic community. 3.2.6.5. Cultural schema on how to observe and choose linguistic signs to create implicit meanings The associative thinking of each ethnic group is different, because each ethnic group has a choice of the essential characteristics of things in each angle. different observations, at the same time, the object will be identified differently and the choice of symbols for the PNs to represent the YNHNH is also different.The reason for choosing one feature over another depends on the different observational bias of the identifier.

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Depending on the actual scope; different views, concepts, views, reflecting different aspects and sides of the same thing or phenomenon; nuanced style, sentiment, level of expression; social taboo; information GT needs; the phenomenon of borrowing and penetrating into foreign countries; proper usage habits over time; Different aspects such as: HT, color, location, function, nature, locality, occupation … that we decode different YNH. 3.2.6.6. Cultural schema of the polysemy of the word YNHNH The Vietnamese polysemy word system reflects the common perception and common association of the Vietnamese nation. The original meaning of polysemous words mainly contains a base meaning component, this meaning is only in context, when the word operates in a sentence/PN) usually has a specific meaning, derived from things, phenomena, HD,the real nature…existence that Vietnamese people can perceive with their five direct senses. Derivative meanings containing symbolic meanings with abstract meanings brought about by associative thinking often contain YNHNH. For example (87, p.139), commenting on the image of “deer” with specific senses, turns to the abstract meaning of human thinking. From the original meaning (which can be the literal or the main meaning) to the transferred meaning (which can be figurative or metaphorical-name/metonymy-name) is observed and perceived by the Vietnamese according to the following rules:From the original meaning (which can be the literal or the main meaning) to the transferred meaning (which can be figurative or metaphorical-name/metonymy-name) is observed and perceived by the Vietnamese according to the following rules:From the original meaning (which can be the literal or the main meaning) to the transferred meaning (which can be figurative or metaphorical-name/metonymy-name) is observed and perceived by the Vietnamese according to the following rules:

From front to back; from near to far; from private to general; from narrow to broad; from the human center to the surrounding world; from concrete to abstract; from sensory perception to rational perception; from visual to abstract; from literal to figurative; from direct meaning to metaphorical meaning; from the sense of freedom to the sense of dependence; The word meaning can stand alone to the meaning that must be combined with other words. Example (88, p.139) also illustrates this issue very well, from praising the buyer for having “good eyes” (very close), to the purpose of referring to the meaning of “good” goods, and next. is the meaning of transferring “corresponding price”, followed by the figurative “praise” for the purpose of “persuading” the buyer indirectly, the second is the figurative meaning “expressing the desire to sell a lot of goods skillfully “…The rules of associative thinking: similarity (similarity), difference (contrast),the closeness (the most systematic relationship) of things and phenomena with the following characteristics: HT (shape, size, color, sound, position); ND (characteristics, functions, attributes, properties…).

For example (85, p.138) there is a similarity in “HT” between “pillows that make the head to 1

For example (85, p.138) there is a similarity in “HT” between “pillows that make the head to be placed higher” and “premium unpaid prescriptions higher, thicker, more”; and the similarity of “ND” between the feature of “putting the head on a higher object, resting the head on another object, stacking the next” and “this debt car has to be stacked on a carriage that has not been paid in full. debt after goods, debt after debt” The rule is based on the main relationships between things: close relationships in space-time, in the whole and in parts, in structure… , the original meaning and the derivative meaning in the structure of Vietnamese polysemous words are distinguished by the following properties:

Concrete – abstract properties; independent-non-independent nature; freedom-dependence; near-far nature; narrow-wide; shiny black; main-sub;…in different scopes of things, different actual scopes, different conceptual scopes. Example (89), B: Did you know I just opened in the afternoon? Pay one more hour! (Opening a shop is a compound word with multiple meanings because it contains different conceptual meanings: (1) In the actual scope of its nature, the activity contains the concept of “making the place of sale in a state that is no longer closed.” but inside and outside are connected”; (2) In fact, talking about time contains the concept of “MB time at the beginning of the session in a very relative way of Vietnamese people”: “opening goods in the afternoon”…; (3 ) To the extent that the “first” property actually contains “is the buyer or seller or the item has just been conducted of a nature for the first time during the day or session”; (4)

 In fact, talking about the nature of chance contains the concept “according to the old concept of Vietnamese people, the opening of MB in the session is a sign of luck or bad luck within a day or within the whole shipment. ; (5) In another practical context, “opening a shop” is translated once again, related to the above meanings, containing the concept of “giving money, children’s gifts on Tet holiday”” Ms. open some new silver coins for me”) 3.2.6.7. Synonymous culture schema – words with close meanings create YNHNH Synonyms and near-meaning words play an important role in any language. Vietnamese synonyms are extremely rich and diverse, helping native speakers to accurately and subtly express ideas in GT and thinking.

Vietnamese people are sensitive and sensitive to the use of synonyms; especially the ability to choose and distinguish the subtle differences in semantic nuances between words belonging to the synonym group in the most appropriate context, creating the “god” in YNH NH. The difference YNHNH with different nuances, is due to the difference in the nuances of the elements: the meaning of the thing-concept; rhetorical-functional elements based on the scope of use and usage habits; expressive-image element; different ways of seeing: different attributes and characteristics of the same object or thing such as: shape, position, color, function… Example (91): as to name “Operation for exchanging objects” (goods) to get money, Vietnamese sometimes rely on its function to call it “selling”,Sometimes relying on HT to sell large quantities because it has to be accompanied by a person carrying that amount of goods by means of transport, which is called “loading”, based on the stable location, expensive nature of the purchased item that calls is “buy”…

3.2.6.8. The LD of the predicate group system has absolute expressive nuances and represents the extreme level of creating implicit meanings. We do not consider predicate predicates at the semantic-grammatical level but at the semantic-pragmatic level. . The pragmatic value of this word class is often associated with semantic value, associated with subjective expressive nuances to create YNH. We need to emphasize the subjective nature of the women who create YNH NH, which is very commonly used. Example (92): the nature and extreme degree of “sì” “let” in words/phrases such as: “deep””green””tasty”, “sweet”, “expensive”, ” expensive”… has passed through the subjective lens of the user, which creates YNHANH that has the value of expressing the feelings and feelings of the speaker. It also works back and causes a certain reaction in the speaker/listener.

It can meet the requirements of expressing different levels of emotional nuances in the clearest, most subtle and convincing way of the elements that create YNH NH. On the other hand, due to the high specificity of Vietnamese people’s GTMB, GT characters always conduct verbal MB argument manipulation. It is the bargaining activity that forces them to conduct the argument against the praise – criticism, because the MB’s goals are opposite (one party likes to buy goods that are both good and cheap and vice versa).

Participating in the creation of the most typical argumentation strategy are two groups of predicates containing the expressive nuances “praise” and “criticism” at an extreme level with the main purpose of increasing the “persuasion” of the opponent. From a semantic-pragmatic perspective, the second element of the predicate really plays a very important role in expressing high symbolism, expressing more or less expressive nuances, more specifically. The inherent level of the main element itself brings, creating a very popular YNHNH. Because in the predicate structure, it usually does not have a lexical meaning, or is expressed in an ambiguous way; or express the nuanced meaning, assessment attitude about the described characteristics, properties and activities; or have the effect of expressing subjective evaluation, suggesting a specific nuance, intensity, absolute level and giving a strong impression when implementing GT strategy. It shows boldly a specific way of thinking,sentiments and richness of Vietnamese people. In terms of nuanced characteristics of things, Vietnamese people show a more specific, emotional, diverse way of thinking that “separates” the segment of objective reality in more detail, compared to English, for example. . At the same time, the “symbolic” nature of the predicate group shows the unique identity, distinguishing the meaning in terms of ND in the Vietnamese vocabulary. That is the very unique and distinct identity of YNHNh in Vietnamese compared to other languages.distinctiveness of YNHNh in Vietnamese compared to other languages.distinctiveness of YNHNh in Vietnamese compared to other languages.

3.2.6.9. Cultural schema of Vietnamese idioms and proverbs creates YNHNH Vietnamese idioms are both a linguistic unit and a cultural entity with its own characteristics in terms of structure, semantics, and style, because of its meaning. contains elements of identity specific to ethnic culture, used very commonly and indispensable in everyday speech. Firstly, in terms of semantics, a large number of idioms with structural elements are ancient words, local words, if we do not carefully study the elements of customs, habits, ways of thinking… of our ancestors, it is also difficult for us to understand their true meaning or not to understand them properly and fully. Second, there are a lot of idioms where we have grasped all the meanings of the elements that make them up, but still cannot properly understand the general meaning of the whole idiom. Third, a large number of idioms have ND stories, classics, legends. Wednesday,Each idiom is a vivid, symbolic, attractive, delicate and subtle picture of YNH NH, closely related to semantics and pragmatics. Fifth, we can find in idioms the view of “beauty”, “good”… associated with the nation’s thinking, lifestyle, and character. Therefore, every ethnic group considers idioms as a mirror reflecting their national cultural characteristics. We can return to example (71, p.126); (82,p.135); (83, p.137) to see that clearly.(82,p.135); (83, p.137) to see that clearly.(82,p.135); (83, p.137) to see that clearly.

The symbolic meaning and common sense of idioms and proverbs that make up the YNH NH of the PN contains the OSMB, which are statistically shown as follows: (1) Expressing the YNHNH indicating the identity and similarity: Lemon star fruit with one heart, pomelo with one heart ; Gourd as well as pumpkin intestine; A hundred pigs have one heart; The fig’s heart is the same as the fig’s heart; What you pay for…; (2) Express YNHNH to show the difference, separate: Birds have wings, fish have fins; Each person has a favorite, each person has a scent; People of five and seven beings, of three and seven species; Bong has liver goblin, goblin has liver cob;…; (3) Expressing YNHNH indicates the inability to please everyone in the social community:

Living in a way that pleases people, in the wide people laugh, in the narrow people criticize; Who knows how to bend the fish to fit the fish’s mouth…; (4) Expressing YNHNH only shows the outward appearance of things and phenomena: Wise to the face, crippled to show limbs; Good handwriting, horse or vortex view; If you look at your face and look at it, your heart will be better if a pig is fat… (5) Expressing YNHNH indicates the ND properties that will determine the high and low values ​​and govern the appearance of things and phenomena: An official buys people , ten francs buy net; Even though she’s eighty thousand and four beautiful, she’s spoiled for a lifetime without virtues…; (6) Expressing YNHNH with only appearance also contributes to determining the internal ND value of things and phenomena: Beauty because of silk, good rice because of manure;

Birds are beautiful by feathers, people are beautiful by clothes; A good chicken is good for feathers, black teeth for medicine, strong wine for yeast…; (7) Expression of YNH NH only the appearance of HT outwardly does not always determine the value of ND inside: Don’t see red but think it’s ripe; Bad to turn the husk into gold…; (8) It is better to show that YNHNH indicates good quality rather than a large quantity that is not good or not of good quality; more good must be less good; the perfect must be better than the incomplete; the main one must be better than the secondary one: Fish scales are better than vegetable leaves; Foxes are not equal to a tiger; It is better to eat half a persimmon than to eat a bunch of bitter figs, One hundred fireflies are not as good as a torch; It is better to eat a whole bunch of figs than to eat half an unfinished persimmon; Being smart is equal to being good at the piano; A long dress is not afraid of thin pants;

The other buffalo that can be bought is the nose fork; The other shirt that can be bought is the band…; (9) Expressing YNHNH indicates the choice is that it is better to choose a good lower class than a bad upper class; quantity also affects quality; there is no good, the main one has to choose the inferior one: Good wine regardless of beige, tattered clothes are better sewn than clumsy villages; Better ignorance or loose words; The odd tiger can’t stand the fox swarm; There are no fish with gotu kola as the main weight…; (10) Expressing YNHNH indicates relative, cannot claim absolute perfection; If you gain one side, you will lose the other side; everything has a limit, exceeding the limit is not good; everything is more or less valuable: Horses are very good; The jade is healed or has a stain; Humanity is not ten perfect; The buyer loses to the seller; Lose mine out of yours; If it’s not good, it can be feverish, if it’s not good, it can be new; Grind rice, don’t keep me;

Get a plowing session, fly an anniversary; If you have a lot of rice, you will work in the mill; Everyone wears a shirt up to their shoulders, 150 no one wears a shirt over their head; Old anchor broke the rope; Probably too flat; Very well pay a lot; Thick rain cover, thin sunshade; Sour wine sold to people who missed…; (11) Expressing YNHNH indicates good, rare, invests a lot of effort, necessity, necessity, then it will become valuable of things and phenomena in the objective world and vice versa of poor quality, not rare, superfluous is not valuable: Good jade is not peddler; More money is good; What’s cheap is yours, if your wife’s cheap, your wife’s messed up, if your pot is full, it’s not good; Who’s delicious food to the market for lunch; As big as a banana seed, whoever presents it; … (twelfth)

Expressing YNHANH point of view: closer than far; more intimate than sister; The closer you are, the more you know each other, and vice versa, closeness is not always good: Far away water does not save fire near; Holding an umbrella is cool; Sell ​​distant relatives to buy near neighbors; Younger at home than old in field; Near the river, familiar with fish, near the mountain, the sound of birds is not strange; The house of the Buddha is not sacred; Fat chicken she sells on the Ngo side, dry chicken she sells on the neighboring side; Near the temple call the Buddha by brother; Familiar cross-sectional pain; Familiar with expensive goods; The more you get used to it, the more it hurts…; (13) Expressing YNHNH only point of view: Early is good, quick is good, slow is bad, when the time comes, you have to be quick to grasp and vice versa, if you survive for a long time and be careful, you will also benefit: Early sacrifice from flies; After eating is the first to clean; Sitting chewy mashed potatoes; Only blind people can catch the safe; Lunch has meals, market has afternoon; The later the wind, the more seeds are firmer; First streng, familiar later;Live long to the old man… (14) Expressing YNHNH only: life follows the natural law of always moving, changing, developing naturally, nothing is constant, that change always pulls something. one according to the other: Without aunt, the market is still crowded; My daughter is going, the big aunt’s daughter; The bridge is broken and the boat is still there, the well is dry and the river is still there; Money is like the tide; Wherever the wick goes, there’s the oil; If there is a river with water, there will be fish; When the fish hangs, the cat fasts; (15) Expressing YNHNH only: everything has a cause, a small mistake can also cause great consequences and once a mistake is made, the consequences must be: Sour and sweet at the tree; Rice cake at fire;The bridge is broken and the boat is still there, the well is dry and the river is still there; Money is like the tide; Wherever the wick goes, there’s the oil; If there is a river with water, there will be fish; When the fish hangs, the cat fasts; (15) Expressing YNHNH only: everything has a cause, a small mistake can also cause great consequences and once a mistake is made, the consequences must be: Sour and sweet at the tree; Rice cake at fire;The bridge is broken and the boat is still there, the well is dry and the river is still there; Money is like the tide; Wherever the wick goes, there’s the oil; If there is a river with water, there will be fish; When the fish hangs, the cat fasts; (15) Expressing YNHNH only: everything has a cause, a small mistake can also cause great consequences and once a mistake is made, the consequences must be: Sour and sweet at the tree; Rice cake at fire;

Flip the math, sell the buffalo; Walk a mile wrong Li; Have the guts to steal, have the guts to take blows; Shoot should not, must pay bullets; The pen is dead…; (16) Expressing YNHNH only: more honest than deceitful, cunning; everyone wants to benefit; there is better than no: Trade speak immediately by plow lying; Without scabies, there is no need to avoid flies; Fraudulent money, masterpiece of humanity; Who likes old-fashioned melons; Restaurants challenge, make customers pay cheap; Who looks after selling expensive but sitting at the market lunch; Hold the guy with the hair, who grabs the bald guy; Wherever the grain goes, there the pigeons go; Of delicious to one’s mouth from; Selling at a loss is better than bringing the basket back to zero; Selling cheap is better than sitting idle, … (17) Expressing that YNHNH is only psychological in disadvantaged MB, he often complains, or considers it as big, criticizes greed: The fish is a big fish; There are sardines, ask for fried fish; Money has less meat wants more; Fish die on bait; Peel off the leaves to save… (18) Expressing the psychological YNHNH in MB, such as:Meat and fish goods, Challenging sales, making customers pay cheaply; There are expensive goods I have to float her goods; Sell ​​cheap on off, sell expensive at noon; If it’s cheap, buy and play, if it’s expensive, rest money; Expensive cinnamon, waste firewood; Gold and silver have a price, shrimp and fish according to the market; Buffaloes exchange forks, silver hands; Criticizing oranges and tangerines… 3.2.6.10. The cultural schema of the vocative words creates implicit meanings

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Date published: 01/11/2021
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