Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 19

e/ Group of absolute expressive nuanced predicates and expressing extreme levels: The meaning of predicates created from the compound and compound modes often emphasizes the expressive meaning component because it is nuanced and concretize the meaning of the original morpheme in the direction of expanding, narrowing, enhancing, and mitigating. In which, the meaning is narrower, specific, clear, more definite, more descriptive, higher expressive value, expressing the diversity and many colors of life is the most common form. . This part is carefully studied in [section 3.2.6.8, p.145] of the thesis. g/ Idioms are also considered as a lexical unit used as a word in the process of creating PN. Therefore, we can use the meaningful components of idioms to create the idea YNHNH in PN.

Speaking of idioms, we refer to the value of expressing objective reality, the reason is that idioms represent different, more subtle, more vivid forms and aspects of the same thing. They are rich and vivid pictures of succinct, emotional, and symbolic methods of metaphorical and metonymy translation, which are a good basis for the creation of YNH NH. Example (71) M: How much is this shirt? B: God, it’s good to find people! There are 120 ha! (praise in idiom) M: It’s not that beautiful but it’s so expensive? 50 okay? B: Come on, I’m bad at singing, but I still think the theater is tight, …! (Criticize with idioms) 3.2.4.3. Using vanity to create connotative meaning Verb has a very important role in creating YNH because it has the ability to flexibly change and will have a “realized” predicate, which is appropriate expression depending on the situation. associated with words in a particular PN, in a particular context.

Vietnamese adverbs have a very specific function, which specializes in signaling a certain type of meaning and orientation for a certain explicit or YNHNH conclusion. According to our incomplete statistics, the number of Vietnamese words is as follows: Conjunctions and sub-combinations (373); Emphatic particle and stressed particle combination (337); Modal particle and modal particle combination (333) Gratitude and sympathetic combination (111); Word relations and combinations of private relations (174). Due to its isolated and detailed characterization, Vietnamese language has expressed its grammatical meaning, expressive nuances, etc. by the way of a lexical word. Wanting to create a YNH NH mechanism is certainly not an exception to that rule. The above numbers are only countable finite numbers, in fact, their meanings vary widely with many functions, uses, and meanings. Contextual,combinations…different, for example (72): M: How much does this hat cost? B: Only 10,000! (Emphasis adverb “just”= cheap = should buy) M: It’s not beautiful! 10,000 cheats huh? (The modal particle at the end of the sentence “that” emphasizes the taste of “not beautiful” and “cheating” = expensive = do not buy)

3.2.5. Mechanism of making connotative meaning in pragmatic aspect YNH NH study is the study of the meaning part of the speaker and the part of meaning that depends on context factors. It is the same PN, but when it appears in one context, it has this YNH NH but in another context, it has a different YNH. It is the interpretation of what one wants to say in a particular context, and the context directly affects what is said, even if the meaning is the exact opposite of what is shown on the surface of the PN. It is also about analyzing what people mean by PNs rather than what the words in the PNs themselves might say. Thus, it requires the speaker to organize the language well.

We know that, only those who are in the communicative intention of the character GT, i.e. the unnatural type, the speaker must, on the one hand, respect the rules of pragmatics and assume that the listener also knows, on the other hand, intentionally violates pragmatic principles and assumes that the listener can justify his violation. Discourse mechanisms at the pragmatic level are the ways of violating the following pragmatic principles: 3.2.5.1. Method 1: the violation of the pragmatic principle of the projection mode Ambiguity about projection, which means that, in many cases, the projection meaning in PN is not immediately determined, but must use analogy , decode the hidden function . We know that the words themselves do not refer to anything, only the human element does that reference (the relationship between the human element and the NN).So, reference can be seen as an activity in which the speaker or writer uses linguistic forms to make something possible for a listener or reader.

Such NN forms are called refering expressions. There are three main reference expressions: Name and object; descriptive expression; export-only expression. In the YNHANH creation mechanism, we study the forms of expressions used to identify something. There are usually two cases to identify something: first, to identify something explicitly, definite, unambiguously, for example, proper nouns (except for coincidence of proper names), definite nouns, definite pronouns; second, identifying something unclear, unclear, not clearly defined, the meaning element is blurred, blurred due to the use of ambiguity about the object.

This is also a way to create YNHNH. To do this, we are forced to acknowledge the role of inference, because in fact there is no direct relationship between the entity of things, the objective phenomenon and the word naming, and NN; The task of the listener is to correctly infer something that the speaker intends to identify. Example (73), B: This shirt is good, can you pay more? M: No, it’s too high-class, I can’t afford it, give me another one!… (The high-level expression in (73) can be understood in terms of the following classes of YNHNH: first, expensive in price; second , it may be expensive because of the high-end quality; third, it may imply that the buyer is not the type of person with a lot of money or wealth to be able to buy that high-end product;…) We temporarily give some rules regarding object projection as follows: a.Violation of the pragmatic principle of object-descriptive expressions The speaker/writer who presents a certain descriptive text always has intentions.

By themselves they always have a certain argumentative effect and are intended to direct the listener to a certain conclusion. In the practice of GBM, people not only limit the negotiation of an issue, but also widen the issue by choosing a topic. For example, in an MB call, you should not only discuss price, but should expand the construction of inferences with other issues to increase persuasion such as: no-cost warranty, time, quality, freight In negotiation, whoever has more information about the other side will definitely get better results. Partners often hide their true intentions, interests, needs, and motives. Therefore, when building arguments, it is necessary to choose the following topics and topics: objectives, data, figures, prices, quality, advantages and disadvantages of partners… and other factors. interpersonal relationships: family,temperament, interests … to build a plan accordingly.

This is most evident in the interleaved pairs in the MB conversation, for example (74), B: Wow, is Hai going to the market? It’s been too long for you to listen! M: Uh, is it expensive? Do you sell genuine E cream? B: Yes, sister! Is he still on the committee these days? Hung must have passed the university, right? The other day he greeted me so cutely! M: How do you know? That pedagogical bean! So how much is this?… We find that the extended PNHs easily obtain a lot of information, intentions, purposes, needs, attitudes, behaviors, consent exploration, stress relief, etc. more effective than the specific, narrow form of PNH. The expressions describing the object are given consideration, calculated, serving the goal, forming a chain of arguments in a logical linear order, in order to lead the listener to an inference that is right with his or her intentions. , helping GT people infer the YNH NH easily. Example (75): B: You know what,This machine was about 6 months ago, but now, although it is used a bit, it only has 3 trees? (new is expensive, old is cheap, let alone according to the seller’s argument, the goods are still new but cheap->should buy) (Suppose the seller arranges the opposite argument, we have another inference: B :This machine only has 3 neem trees because it’s a bit old, you get what you pay for! (cheap but old, if you bought it, don’t blame me for not saying it first); M: Why didn’t you say it was too old? “damn” already? (argument of the buyer: criticizing the old); B: Oh my god, only my aunt is “out of shit”, this machine has only been bought and used for a few months, because they want to change their life. they just sold at a loss! (the goods are new, give reasons why the goods are new) (Assume the seller arranges differently: because people want to change their lives, they have only used it for a few months! would easily conclude that the machine is old-don’t buy) M:Do you act like I’m in a new province? You can tell by looking at the machine, don’t you give me some money to “swallow” it back? (Give an argument to reduce the price)…

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Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 19 375

The stammer, which leaves “a space” is also problematic pragmatically. It is presented in terms of audio HT as a pause, faltering; In terms of HT, the written word is an ellipsis (…). We put these signs in the expression describing the object projection. This is a way of saying that violates the expression describing the ambiguous, ambiguous object, so that the listener can make their own inference. This type of speech also makes YNHANH which is relatively common and has a pretty good effect. b. The violation of pragmatic principles of dexis is what we do when we create PNs, to “show” things and phenomena in relation to NN, of “what”.

Which form of NN is used to perform this “indication”, called an output-only expression. There are three categories of export-only expressions: only personal output; export only space; output only time. b1/ Violation of pragmatic principles on personal pronouns Speaking of personal expressions, on the surface, it looks simple, but in fact its usage is very complicated. Only personal output works on the basis of the GT’s trinity division.

It is detailed by signs of social position relative to points. Expressions indicating higher status are described as honorifics. The choice of one form or another to create the GT effect, representing the different YNHNH we consider as the only factors of social output. The choice of a certain form will certainly announce something that is not explicitly stated about the speaker’s view of the relationship, social status, feelings… between the speaker and the listener.

The system of social networks in Vietnamese conversation is very complex and delicate. Each social relationship pair is the CEO of certain types of social relationships, certain conversational positions, contributing to the creation of certain YNHNH, affecting the conversation destination. Example (76), B: Auntie, pay more, buy it for me to open the shop! (The seller used the kinship word “aunt-niece” to establish an intimate relationship with a very clear intention and expressed YNH NH according to the principle of interests and the governing principle of courtesy); M: Yeah, 30 okay? B: It’s not good! It’s weird to pay for it?! It’s too much for free!; M: Stop it, auntie! Do you think you are the only one to sell? (The buyer intentionally changed the TXH to implicitly express his displeasure. So the buyer intentionally violated the rules of using social media to show the attitude and change in the relationship between the two without declaring it. explicit statement) b2/ Violation of pragmatic principles of spatial output It is a matter of near, far,width, narrowness of the origin of the space and the direction of view when projecting objects to locate the space. The violation of the spatial export-only rule is based on the following factors:

The concept of distance mentioned is clearly relevant to the spatial output element, where the relative positions of people and objects are indicated. The landmark position from the speaker’s point of view is determined both physically and mentally. When it comes to the mental aspect, we can’t help but mention the sensory-dependent factor, which is relative, subjective, and ambiguous, which easily blurs the meaning.

This phenomenon is called output-only projection. Another pragmatic basis mentioned is the psychological distance. Example (77), B: Hey, what’s up, why don’t you buy me something? (The pronoun “this” according to [127, p. 637], ‘is used to refer to a person, thing, place, time, or event that is determined and is right in front of you at the moment of speaking. ); M: What’s so bad about calling this and that? Don’t buy it! (Combining the word “this and that” with an expressive nuance with negative connotations, this and that without saying it specifically, because it is not wanted or convenient to say specifically); B: Are you sure I didn’t invite you to speak up?…Example (77) is the same as example (3, p.21) (42, p.87), psychological distance is the basis for creating an idea. YNH for these PN.b3/ Violation of pragmatic principles of temporal output The psychological basis of temporal output is almost the same as spatial output.

Time positioning is to take the time of speech as the origin. However, the width-narrowness of subjective space or time is often elastic, approximate, ambiguous. Attached is the subjective intention of GT participants. Let’s consider example (78): B: Too long? (reminds a regular friend to pay back old debt) M: What’s so bad about it? Just had a pillow trip! (reminds that the debt is new and cannot be paid) 3.2.5.2. Method 2: The violation of the pragmatic principle of language action We can use the method of violating the preparatory conditions or the sincerity condition to form the indirect foreign language activity. Using indirect synonyms is a very effective way to create YNH NHA ideas, because true synonyms will fulfill the conditions of use and be true to the purpose of the words. Example (79), M:How much is this machine?; B:2 million kids!; M: Is there any cheaper price?; B:If you can’t buy it here, won’t it, it must be difficult to buy?; Can M:1 and a half million be sold? B: Now is the time?

That price was 4 years ago, sister? (the seller at (79) violated the OS’s condition of preparation and sincerity, because he knew well that he should have answered the genuine PNH that the buyer had set out in the previous turn, then again to place a PNH that indirectly counters the price set by the buyer. ) 3.2.5.3. Method 3: Violation of the pragmatic principle of the rules of conversation The dialogue proceeds according to certain rules, which are followed by all participants in GT like reflexes, memorized in each person’s subconscious mind. Whether unconsciously or clearly consciously, everyone has the ability to recognize when, where, a rule has been violated and when it has been intentionally violated. will generate YNHNH. That is the following rule:a) The rule of taking turns of speech A violation of the rule of taking turns is when the latter speaker intentionally violates it by interrupting the speaker, or speaking before the speaker has finished his or her turn. word. This is also a way of creating YNHNH in the negative direction of politeness, negative about conversational cooperation. b/ The rule violates the principle of cooperation: this principle includes four categories that Grice calls the motto of quantity, quality, relationship, and manner. Let’s go back to example (66), (p.123) we will see clearly the problem of violating the maxim of quantity by answering that doesn’t match the ND PNH, or by using a descriptive sentence instead of the response activity, or by repetition (B:…it’s been so tight lately!; M:…seems like a long time ago” The seller provided a description for the purpose of raising the selling price. the price increase….).

The importance of the maxim of substance (believe it to be true), the maxim of relation (must be appropriate, be reasonable), the maxim of manner (must be clear) imply that what is being said may not be relevant and use barrier method. c/ Rules governing interpersonal relations – politeness: politeness as a etiquette associated with the concept of face, contains tact, generosity or modesty… So it is the means used to demonstrate the awareness of the face of others. Example (80): M: The color looks good, why is the material so bad? 70 is expensive!; B: Say it as much as you want, it’s too long! (the seller at (80) behaved rudely by saying “speak up” and insulting the buyer with the word “long-winded” with a negative expressive meaning component, meaning that the buyer said much…

Thus, the seller did not save the face of the buyer. With such a YNH, it will definitely affect the MB results); M: It’s okay to talk about trading! (buyer leaves). 3.2.5.4. Method 4: Violation of the pragmatic principle of the rule of argument In an argumentation relation, a violation of the argument rule by not completing the argument steps will also create an allegorical meaning. For example, there are cases where the argument has only one side of the argument but the conclusion is missing, the listener has to infer the conclusion… Example (81), M: This shirt is really nice, but I’m so black! (don’t buy) B: So it’s black? What do you say? (should buy)

3.2.6. The mechanism for creating allegorical meanings is applied from the national cultural schemata of the Vietnamese language and the Vietnamese people’s linguistic thinking The ability to automatically obtain our explanations and inferences for things that are not said or written (YNHNH) must be based on preexisting knowledge structures. These structures function as familiar patterns from existing experience that we use to account for new experiences.

Frameworks of this type are called background knowledge schemas. A background knowledge schema is a preexisting knowledge structure in memory [194]. The most important thing is that it must be based on an important and decisive basis: national culture. The cultural schemas in the mechanism that produce YNH are developed within the very context of our basic experiences. We have the following methods or schemata:

3.2.6.1. LDVH symbolic meaning of the pair of opposites of common sense creates YNHNh (topoi) Cultural customs of the Vietnamese people cannot be without opposing categories of common sense, which are most evident in idioms and proverbs.

Vietnamese people like to use idioms and proverbs to visualize, concretize, popularize, easily convey the profound YNHNH and create a close relationship between buyers and sellers. To create MB relations, they not only narrow the topic within MB, but to achieve the most beneficial purpose, they can expand different types of topics: relatives, family, … and based on the basic foundation of common sense with the relationship of opposites, more or less, more or less… of the following categories: (respect for morality > beauty; quality > outside code; ND > HT; spirit > material); quality>quantity; love>money; deeds>words; health>no health; good>bad; intelligence>no intelligence; wisdom>wisdom; quantity>no quantity; much>little ; fat > thin; big > small; HT > not HT; beautiful > ugly ; tall > short; fame >wealth; people >wealth;relative >not related; near > far; high rank>low rank;status>no status; old age>small age; head > tail (status); knowledge >wealth; own>of the person; distance> hierarchy…Example (82), M: How much is this shirt?; B: 100 sis!; M: What’s 100?;

B: The head is more narrow than the buffalo, isn’t it? This is the latest model, just selected, it’s not cheap, but it’s cheap?… (The opposite pair (shrink/buffalo) represents the opposite relationship (baby) /large); and the opposite pair (top/feet) represents the opposite pair (first/last), so the narrow head is small but is ranked higher, because the new and trendy goods are of course more expensive than the defective ones. time, past fashion (although it’s still beautiful) The seller argues on the basis of common sense: status>volume or status>quality ). 3.2.6.2. The field of cultural association creates YNH NH according to the law of perception and translation: the law of human perception goes from the perception of concrete and intuitive feelings to abstraction and rationality. Therefore, the creation of YNHNH also follows the rule from concrete to abstract. When choosing linguistic means, we need to pay attention to find appropriate words for the topic of discourse.

At the same time, in order to create YNH NH, we must pay attention to find words related to the hidden meaning by association, based on the observation method in the context. There are three methods of observation to create associations in the field of meaning with vertical and horizontal relationships: the method of observing by the senses; spatial observation method; time observation method. The use of association fields is always based on 3 main relationships between objects: similarity; the contrast; the closeness of one thing to another, one mind to another. That is the law of translation, based on two main processes and associations: the process of expanding or narrowing the meaning and the law of transcribing according to the process of metaphor, metonymy, comparison; associations according to relationships such as: inclusive, explanatory, causal, congenial,logic, positioning, quantification, positioning, contrast. The law of translation according to the process of metaphor, metonymy, comparison must be based on associations, on similar comparison criteria (HT, color, function, position, sound, attributes, properties, etc.) ); criteria of close relationship, including each other (whole-part; container- what is contained; dwelling-person; material-product, …); criterion of stable or transitory transliteration in the context.criterion of stable or transitory transliteration in the context.criterion of stable or transitory transliteration in the context.

The association of lexical comparison, rhetorical comparison; lexical metaphor, rhetorical metaphor, lexical metonymy, and rhetorical metonymy. Main operations of association (other than imagination): think; Remember; infer… other, related images, things, events. In fact, we not only use a lot of means of rhetorical metaphor, rhetorical metonymy, rhetorical comparison (specific image association), for aesthetic signals in poetry, but also use a lot of these means in the practice GT speaks every day. This is an important mechanism to create YNHNH effectively. For example (83), B: Why do you think you pay so much, auntie?; M: Not for sale? If you sit hard, the potato will be crushed (1), if you don’t sell it to me for a long time, it will still fall (2) the price is still there! (Buyer used figurative rhetoric, using pictures (1) with the first real meaning,but actually to signify the next second or third meaning –YNHNH – the longer the goods, the more outdated, the lower the quality, the more the price is lost as a result…; Picture (2) is the same, the speaker borrows the real meaning of “falling” as “moving from high to low, no longer remaining in a high position”, the buyer does not have to say this but (2) is used through another translation meaning “commodity prices go from high to low…);B:Thank you for thinking about it! (with a long jaggery) Or for example (84), B: Brother, buy Northern peaches, it’s delicious! (Peach fruit originates from Lang Son country); M: I only have money to buy fairy peaches, but not northern peaches! (Temporarily in the buyer’s PN at (84) does not use the original meaning, but mainly uses the transliteration, with YNHANH indicating beautiful people); B: That’s too expensive! Do you have money to buy and set up? (Beauty is expensive, asking to negate, sarcastic)sarcasm)sarcasm)the more outdated, the lower the quality, the more lost the price as a result…; Picture (2) is the same, the speaker borrows the real meaning of “falling” as “moving from high to low, no longer remaining in a high position”, the buyer does not have to say this but (2) is used through another translation meaning “commodity prices go from high to low…);B:Thank you for thinking about it! (with a long jaggery) Or for example (84), B: Brother, buy Northern peaches, it’s delicious! (Peach fruit originates from Lang Son country); M: I only have money to buy fairy peaches, but not northern peaches! (Temporarily in the buyer’s PN at (84) does not use the original meaning, but mainly uses the transliteration, with YNHANH indicating beautiful people); B: That’s too expensive! Do you have money to buy and set up? (Beauty is expensive, asking to negate, sarcastic)the more outdated, the lower the quality, the more lost the price as a result…; Picture (2) is the same, the speaker borrows the real meaning of “falling” as “moving from high to low, no longer remaining in a high position”, the buyer does not have to say this but (2) is used through another translation meaning “commodity prices go from high to low…);B:Thank you for thinking about it! (with a long jaggery) Or for example (84), B: Brother, buy Northern peaches, it’s delicious! (Peach fruit originates from Lang Son country); M: I only have money to buy fairy peaches, but not northern peaches! (Temporarily in the buyer’s PN at (84) does not use the original meaning, but mainly uses the transliteration, with YNHANH indicating beautiful people); B: That’s too expensive! Do you have money to buy and set up? (Beauty is expensive, asking to negate, sarcastic)The speaker borrows the real meaning of “fall” as “moving from high to low, no longer remaining in a high position”, the buyer does not have to say this but (2) is used to convey another meaning “price of goods” from high to low…);

B:Thank you for thinking for me! (with a long jaggery) Or for example (84), B: Brother, buy Northern peaches, it’s delicious! (Peach fruit originates from Lang Son country); M: I only have money to buy fairy peaches, but not northern peaches! (Temporarily in the buyer’s PN at (84) does not use the original meaning, but mainly uses the transliteration, with YNHANH indicating beautiful people); B: That’s too expensive! Do you have money to buy and set up? (Beauty is expensive, asking to negate, sarcastic)The speaker borrows the real meaning of “fall” as “moving from high to low, no longer remaining in a high position”, the buyer does not have to say this but (2) is used to convey another meaning “price of goods” from high to low…);B:Thank you for thinking for me! (with a long jaggery) Or for example (84), B: Brother, buy Northern peaches, it’s delicious! (Peach fruit originates from Lang Son country); M: I only have money to buy fairy peaches, but not northern peaches! (Temporarily in the buyer’s PN at (84) does not use the original meaning, but mainly uses the transliteration, with YNHANH indicating beautiful people); B: That’s too expensive! Do you have money to buy and set up? (Beauty is expensive, asking to negate, sarcastic)Thank you for thinking for me! (with a long jaggery) Or for example (84), B: Brother, buy Northern peaches, it’s delicious! (Peach fruit originates from Lang Son country); M: I only have money to buy fairy peaches, but not northern peaches! (Temporarily in the buyer’s PN at (84) does not use the original meaning, but mainly uses the transliteration, with YNHANH indicating beautiful people); B: That’s too expensive! Do you have money to buy and set up? (Beauty is expensive, asking to negate, sarcastic)Thank you for thinking for me! (with a long jaggery) Or for example (84), B: Brother, buy Northern peaches, it’s delicious! (Peach fruit originates from Lang Son country); M: I only have money to buy fairy peaches, but not northern peaches! (Temporarily in the buyer’s PN at (84) does not use the original meaning, but mainly uses the transliteration, with YNHANH indicating beautiful people); B: That’s very expensive! Do you have money to buy and set up? (Beauty is expensive, asking to negate, sarcastic)

3.2.6.3. The cultural schema of transliteration and symbolic meaning creating implicit meanings YNHNH is also the result of reflecting the reality, experience of social history and human consciousness, in which the people here are representatives of a community. certain national culture. In different languages, there are often no words that are completely identical in terms of semantic characteristics, behind them are different meanings, there are 139 factors that are unique to a certain culture. One of the unique and important factors in YNHNh is the translation and symbolic meaning. YNHNH is closely associated with the translation of meanings in words in the semantic-pragmatic level. The translation of meaning belongs to a broader or narrower scope than the direct meaning on the PN or the semantic transformation, that is, the transition from one semantic structure to another on the basis of expanding and narrowing associations. copper,approach according to the HT logic law of thinking. The translation is not only general, universal, international, but also includes the uniqueness with national specificity.

Because the association in translation is determined by historical conditions, living circumstances, the surrounding world, the specific psychology of a cultural community, leading to the translation of different meanings of different languages. may not be the same. For example (85), M: Why have I ordered the goods to be ordered but never filled in?; B: Wow, why haven’t I seen the receipt?; M: Did you forget the day you promised to give me a pillow twice? (We couldn’t find an equivalent translation of the word “pillow” in (85) into English. Because the original meaning of “pillow” is [ (d):a headrest in living)];[ (d) :to put the head of an object higher; put one end on another object; next husband another thing, start as soon as it is not finished)]; the context of (85) forces us to understand through the meaning that the seller owes the buyer a single purchase, or owes a unit to a wagon and that debt is kept by the seller,Buyers do not have to pay for that shipment, only the next one will have to be paid until the end of the MB contract.)

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