Link Building Based On Adjective Structure

Vietnamese linking grammar model - 12

Association with a noun (noun) exists when the noun (noun) is in the form of a direct or indirect complement. Whether the direct complement is a noun or a noun, a relationship is established for the noun. The noun is the direct object of the action associated with the verb through the O+ connection. Although the indirect object of an action is usually related to the verb through a preposition, there are some cases where the relationship between a noun and a verb is direct. For example, in the sentence “I gave my mother a flower”, “mother” is the direct object while “flower” is the indirect object. The link built between “donation” and “flower” is IO+.

Linking with prepositions: According to [2], the verb ending structure, that is, the part that 1

  • Linking with prepositions:

According to [2], the verb ending structure, that is, the part that follows the verb involves many types of prepositions, specifically in the following cases:

  • Prepositions indicating recipients, purposes, and goals of service: “give”, for example “give it to me”, “buy it for me”. The dictionary does not suggest a type particle for the preposition “for” but for this word a formula:

# prepositions indicating recipients, purposes, and goals for: [e] CHO

Some verbs will have a CHO+ relationship: “give”, “buy”, “sell”, “devote”, “contribute”…

The formula is built only involving verbs related to this preposition such as “buy”, “sell”, “give”, “give”…

  • Objects of loss or damage (“of”, for example “borrowed from you”): this relationship is only available with some verbs such as “borrow”, “borrow”, “borrow”, other verbs. this word will be given a separate entry and add the formula: DT-CUA+

The word “of” adds the formula DT-CUA- & EoNt+. This formula ensures that the word “of” that comes after a verb always comes before a noun

  • Some auxiliary elements are other prepositions such as

– Sub-element indicates aspect (“about”).

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– Sub-element indicating place (“dwell”).

– Sub-elements indicate means, tools, materials (“equals”).

– Sub-element indicates the person or thing participating in the action (“with”).

 – Sub-element indicates the thing to be compared (“like”).

Links to verbs through VE connections. Not all verbs have this link. Details are provided in the appendix.

  • Links between verbs and verbs: there are links between transitive verbs and some other types of verbs:

Passive verb: VtVs+

Status Verbs: VtVs-

  • Linking between verbs and adjectives: This is an important link because it involves the difference between Vietnamese and many other languages. Vietnamese adjectives have the same form when going with nouns and verbs, but when translated into another language like English, the adjective changes into an adverb. The link name is VA. Link VA- yes with adjectives indicating properties, onomatopoeic and onomatopoeic adjectives. VA+ links are found in most verbs, see the appendix for details.
  • Some exceptions

Some modal verbs (“love”, “remember”… ) and modal verbs (“want”, “want”…) have additional connections with adverbs of degree (“very”, “fairly”, “fairly” on the left or “very”, “too” on the right) via the links RlVm-, RlVs- and VmRl+, VsRl+.

Conjunctions of degree: RlVm+, RlVs+, VmRl-, VsRl-.

Example: The associations of the phrase “very scared” are shown in Figure 2.11

Figure 2.11. Links in the phrase “very scared” Linking verbs “go”, “done”: The verb 2

Figure 2.11. Links in the phrase “very scared”

Linking verbs “go”, “done”: The verb “go” in Vietnamese often comes with other verbs such as: “go to school”, “go out”, “go shopping”… When translated into English will have special changes. Similarly, the verb “done” comes with another verb, when translated into English, it will change to the present perfect. Therefore, these verbs are placed in separate entries in the dictionary.

go: DI+

learn, work, swim, fish, play, shop: DI

Similarly, the verb “done” is connected with transitive verbs such as “do”, “study”, “plow”…with the connection TEL_DONE+. Verb “done” with the link TEL_DONE

2.1.4. Links for adjectives

2.1.4.1 Links for adjectives as predicate

According to [16], adjectives are divided into 4 sub-categories: adjectives indicating properties, relative adjectives, onomatopoeic adjectives and morphological adjectives. Also according to [16], in these types of adjectives, only adjectives can act as direct predicates. Therefore, this type of adjective has an SA- connection. In the case of adjectives modifying the noun as the subject, the SA conjunction is still used. When analyzing a clause that has both SA and SV or DT_LA associations, the predicate will be chosen as the verb.

Property adjectives also connect THT- or THS+ to question words like verbs.

Similarly, only this type of adjective comes after the suffix of degree. However, there are some types of affixes that are not used before the adjective has used the affix of degree. The link formula will be built at the end of this section.

2.1.4.2. Link building based on adjective structure

In terms of the structure of the adjective, all adjective subtypes can play a prime role [28]. The association is inferred from the structure of the elements that come before or after the element

  • Sub-element before the adjective

According to [28], before the main element there can be affixes of time, degree, negative, affirmative, imperative. These affixes are built from the corresponding sub-categories. Thus, adjectives will have the following linking formulas:

{RtA- or RhA- or RpA- or RfA-} & @RcA-

RcA- & RmA-

{RnA-}& RaA

The right-aligned auxiliary words are RtA+, RhA+, RpA+, RfA+, RnA+, RmA+, RcA+, RaA+, respectively.

  • Subordinate element after adjective

In this position can be affixes required by the main element.

Range suffixes: Range affixes are only used with adjectives indicating properties. This affix can be a noun, verb or adjective.

If the affix is a noun, two cases can occur:

  • Go immediately after the adjective, for example “experienced”. Link is AN.
  • Comes with a conjunction (“in”) or a preposition (“about”). These are special cases with ApC, ApE . links

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Date published: 01/11/2021
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