Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 18

The study of YNH in the above direction forces us to explain what is communicated and understood in a particular context. Context itself will have the opposite effect with a high role in helping the speaker choose what is said and what should not be said. Context requires the speaker to consider, select, and organize what he intends to say in accordance with the elements spoken with, in the place, and at the time. Context helps the listener to consider, choose a way to understand and interpret the meaning in accordance with what is being communicated, with what the speaker wants to announce. Thus, YNH NH research is the study of the meaning part of what is announced by the speaker and what is understood by the listener in association with a particular context.The study of YNH under the above approach will also open a way for us to discover how the speaker can construct and organize what is being communicated, and how the listener can reason. interpret what is understood, the meaning that the speaker intends to convey.

So, YNH NH research is about discovering how a speaker can give a large amount of unspoken or unspoken things, and a large amount of unspoken things are received by listeners. know as part of what is communicated; it is the study of ways, laws, and mechanisms at the service of what is communicated and understood more than what is said in words. The study of YNH under the above approach will also open the way for us to tighten the relationship between semantic and pragmatic aspects.

Not only connecting the relationship between the NN form and the entities in the world, how words can properly associate with things (real or unreal), but also linking the relationship between images and objects. state with the user. Besides, we draw the principle that: the more two speakers have in common, the fewer words they need to use to identify familiar things.

The study of YNH also also suggests that the problem related to CTLC is the choice of NN morphology, which is certainly related to the announcement of something else and also reflects the view of the speaker’s relationship with the listener. So, YNH NH research is to find out the meaning and meaning mechanism belonging to the speaker’s announcement and what is understood by the listener in association with CTLC, with specific context, in the choice between what is said – what is said. unspoken words of the speaker, between this understood – the other understood of the listener. 3.2.2. Conditions for implementing the pragmatic function mechanism

In order to determine the pragmatic function mechanism, of course, we must rely on two other meanings that are very important and are always closely related and closely related to YNHÍ, that is, the explicit meaning and the general meaning. When considering YNHNH, we must put them in a dialectical relationship that is both opposite and unifying between the explicit meaning and the YNHNH; between the meaning of CEO and YNHNH. At the same time, we also pay attention to the condition: all YNH NH exist and develop on the basis of the manifest meaning and the general meaning. We need to consider YNHNH in narrow and broad contexts such as: broad GT context (political, geographical, economic, cultural, historical, ethnic…); narrow GT context (space, time) and non-state factors such as context, attitude, gestures, gestures, …

Although the components of non-discourse reality are beyond the scope of our research, it is also important to understand that in the process of thinking, they play a very important role. When studying anthropology in PN being used, it is forced to assume that the semantic function is already in the words and sentences themselves. In other words, inside the PN already contains the CEO and the semantic function. Actually, everyone using NN has been implementing this mechanism like conditioned reflex, but they don’t know that they are implementing it. When implementing the mechanism of creating YNH anthropology, we need to combine with the sensitivity of native speakers; the habits, styles, cultures, and specific uses of each ethnic group; GT intent and purpose… 3.2.3.The relationship between the way of creating implicit meanings with CTLC YNHNh is not a stable, invariant, static structural system of meaning, but a variable and always dynamic system. YNHNH was created in the strategy of reasoning GT in general and GTMB in particular of the Vietnamese people.

In order to create a good argumentation strategy, both the coder and the decoder depend heavily on the selection of NN and non-NN factors. So, YNHANH is a result, a product of CTLC, not a factor of CTLC. For example, social responsibility, labor culture… are factors at different levels that contribute to the creation of YNH NH together with the civil society. Through the study of YNHNH and the mechanism of creating the implied meaning of the OS in the GTMB, we found that the GT people use CTLC in the pragmatic level to create the YNHNH. On the contrary, it is YNHNH who also helps the speaker to decide what to choose in accordance with the message and helps the listener and researcher to decide which interpretation is suitable for what is being understood. CTLC is at the pragmatic level, but it dominates at all levels of agriculture, in the modes of state management, and at all levels of agriculture.

In GTMB, the selection of NN and non-NNA factors to suit the argument strategy is a factor of great importance to create YNH. For example (63): B: Oh man, long time no see, how are you? M: My stomach is so tight these days, I guess I can’t eat sour food! B: Just watch, there’s something sweet, don’t force me to buy it, I’m afraid! In (63), the seller has used a PN containing the transaction date for the purpose of establishing a close interpersonal relationship (possibly a temporary, unstable relationship) and at the same time not only meant to explicitly ask Health visit and happy attitude because we haven’t seen each other for a long time, behind the obvious meanings is YNHANH. That is the notification center sent to the buyer: the implicit attitude of reproach “why have you not bought my products for a long time” and if you haven’t purchased for a long time, “have to buy it for me”.

 At the same time, the seller implicitly called for “buy it”. And the buyer in (63) did not agree to buy, but did not explicitly answer because of politeness in GT. Buyers want to save face, don’t want to directly lose face of sellers, so they chose PN to respond to YNHNh, by choosing NN factors that deviated from the question point, using an redundant operating system. I’m so tickled lately, I guess I can’t eat sour food!”, intentionally violating both the quantitative and qualitative motto (according to HPGrice’s cooperative principle) making the seller not can only understand the explicit meaning, but forced to explain in another direction is YNHNH; Behind the contract describes, the buyer has made the contract to refuse to buy.

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In a similar way, the seller also replied in the same way as above to show that he really understood the buyer’s point of view; at the same time, continue to perform more convincing contracts, still trying to urge buyers to “choose another product”…. (Of course, this is an explanation from the perspective of people studying agriculture, but the seller knows how to use it as a habit without even knowing that they are using CTLC…). So, YNHNh is the result, the product of CTLC, because choosing the NN and non-NNA factors to match the argument strategy is to create YNHÂ. Speaking is to influence others, the speaker always has a sense of how to make the listener understand and receive the best, most interested in his words. Speech, although it is the product of individuals, is never allowed to be arbitrary but is always subject to the harsh control of the rules of conduct…

That makes the individual when speaking forced to fully calculate all aspects so that the speech 1

That makes the individual when speaking forced to fully calculate all aspects so that the speech can achieve the highest standards of behavior and effectiveness; especially for polite, polite speech…, the GT people are forced to express themselves in an allegorical way, then the speech is more strictly controlled by the rules of the language. In GT activities, state does not exist in a free and non-compliant way. The coding process always takes place according to CTLC, consciously, under the control and constraints of linguistic rules, pragmatic rules, cultural-socio-psychological principles…

We know that PN is the result of a particular individual’s use of sentences, in a particular speaking situation. And discourse is an internal organized collection of PNs, not a text consisting of grammatically correct sentences of a language, but a socio-psychological product, a speaking activity of specific individuals, In specific situations, according to the manipulation of reasoning and making words, they constantly change each other, depending on different factors and principles, but the speaker always uses appropriate selection manipulations.

3.2.4. The mechanism for creating functional meanings at the semantic lexical level Method 1: flexibly use basic meaningful components of real Vietnamese words for choosing topics to express allegorical meanings The speaker/writer when presenting a certain descriptive text always has meaning mine. By themselves, they always contain basic meaningful components that are stable in the NN system. They are selected and used by the speaker to have a certain argumentative effect, to orient the listener to a certain conclusion.

The conclusion that is drawn after the listener receives the PN from the speaker is what is informed by the speaker and what is understood by the listener. The choice of words and topics, in order to serve a certain discourse topic to direct the speaker or listener to a positive conclusion, is very important. Example (64), B: Wow, why is your face so dark these days? (The seller in (64) pretends to unintentionally comment that a discourse topic is a customer’s skin problem, but in fact the seller has borrowed OSGT to join the discourse topic for the purpose of evoking the need there are customers. When the purpose of eliciting such demand has been achieved, goods may be sold… ); M: I’ve treated all kinds of things, but I can’t get rid of it! (the buyer had the intention to politely refuse and implicitly told the seller that there was no need); B: Oh my god,why don’t you say? I’m new to the best new melasma cosmetics! Very effective! (The seller thinks that other people’s cosmetics can’t cure the dark spots, but if the customers use their products, they won’t get rid of the tan…); M: The doctor hasn’t won yet, and that’s it! … (The buyer no longer refuses politely, but refuses more directly because of another implicit conclusion closer to the rejection in the PN above.

To do that, the buyer used the method of choosing a different discourse topic to come to a new conclusion, of course the discourse topic here is specifically expressed in the fact that the word “doctor” means basically: “a doctor who has undergone training, at least graduated from a medical university, and whose main function is to cure disease”. Accompanied by the choice of topic of discourse with the word “doctor” combined with stammering (…), the buyer made the argument: if a doctor can’t treat it, no one can treat it…) ; B: Make sure you don’t take any less money! (The seller understands that the buyer has refused, but still introduces another discourse with the word “guarantee” and the promise “no money” to make the buyer make a different argument: the seller sure don’t cheat,because the seller has to rely on a certain basis to dare to say “sell without taking money”… The topics are very diverse and rich.

In MB, when expressing the topic, it is necessary to pay attention to interpersonal relationships with factors such as: family, ethnicity, gender, age, occupation, education, physical state, … Example (65 ), B: Wow, why haven’t I seen you go to the market for a long time? … I’m sure this is a lot of work with a small belly? It’s been a while since I’ve seen you there! M: Really, sir? Sell me a few pounds of rice… (The seller chose the topic with the words: “boo ba” “small belly” to show sympathy, care about factors such as your family. buyers; “seeing younger” to show compliments and interest in the buyer’s personal factors.

Those things have created a positive response from buyers. As a result, the buyer went straight to the conversation about the topic of buying now). Example (66): B: Genuine goods are very scarce these days M: I seem to have bought your products a long time ago, right? B: Because! In a few days of printing, she didn’t say but … (The seller in (66) chose the topic with the word “khan” to express the implication: the goods are scarce, leading to the conclusion (difficult to find, need to increase) The buyer chose the topic of the long time being a customer, with the argument and common sense of the Vietnamese people: whoever is a MB customer for a long time, the gratitude is placed on the goods. First, and when the goods fluctuate erratically, the seller has to suffer a little loss because he has already enjoyed the interest brought by the buyer before, which is considered a lot…)

Method 2: flexibly use the expressive meaning of real Vietnamese words for the selection of topics expressing allegorical meanings. discourse by a real-word system. In fact, GT people not only flexibly use the basic meaning of real words, but also flexibly use the expressive meanings of real words to create YNHÂ ideas. Expressive meaning is one of the meaningful components of a word that reflects the user’s emotional, emotional, and attitude relationship with the word used. This meaning is implicit in the semantic structure of the word. It only reveals its true meaning, thanks to “choice”, by the user’s art of using words in the appropriate context.

We call it a way of building arguments by exploiting the nuanced and expressive meanings of Vietnamese words, that is, exploiting the nuanced and expressive meanings of stable words. included in the Vietnamese vocabulary system. Words in a sentence, a PN is influenced by the context around it, conversely, it also redefines the meaning in the context. So the same word is used in this sentence, here it is correct, but in that sentence, there is incorrect. Because, the basic meaning and the expressive meaning, the utilitarian meaning of the word system is very rich and diverse, specific.

The Vietnamese word system is classified differently, based on different criteria: (1) Based on two basic types of relationships in NN, we have: real words belonging to the horizontal (linear) combined sense field, real words belonging to the vertical (associative) field of meanings: reaction words, …, real words belonging to both horizontal and vertical meaning fields: synonyms, antonyms, homonyms; (2) Based on sound similarities: homonyms, diametrical words; (3) Based on similarities in meaning: synonyms, antonyms; (4) Based on similarities in grammatical features: nouns, … (5) Based on similarities in structural types: compound words, … (6) Based on origins: pure Vietnamese words, borrowed words ; (7) Based on the scope of use: from the entire population, from the locality, from a term, from a profession; (8) Based on usage time: old words, new words; (9) Based on the nature of the equivalent unit of use such as word: word,fixed language (idiom, idiom); (10) Based on pictograms, onomatopoeia… Here, we would like to repeat some classification criteria so that we can have an overview of them. After that, we only choose some typical real words to serve the thesis of the thesis.

a/ Synonyms: In Vietnamese, there are many groups of synonyms with different expressive nuances. Words in the group of synonyms have different high and low levels of synonymy depending on the number of identical meanings and depending on the difference in the composition of expressive meanings with the scope of use. When the speaker knows how to make good use of the above meaning component, the speaker will well establish the arguments, expressing in the most accurate and subtle way the most obscure aspects of the rich and vivid objective reality. Compare example (67), B: “Miss, don’t pay too low!”; and (66), B: “Miss, don’t overpay!” The words “don’t” and “don’t” both have the same basic meaning: to negate, forbid, to advise against doing something. But “don’t” means long-term negation, both present and future, meaning outright prohibition; and “don’t” just means to negate the present,Don’t do something just at the moment of speaking, and then maybe later.

b/ Antonyms: Antonym relations help us to understand more deeply and clearly the meaning of words in comparison. In other words, the orientations of the conclusions are more clearly positioned, the meanings of words are expressed more delicately, and are more realistic in the comparison of expressive meanings in antonym relations. Example (68): M: Why do you weigh so young? B: Stop it, child, only young children and aunt’s weight, only old ones! (The seller in (68) exploited the basic meaning composition and compared the expressive meanings of two pairs of antonym combinations: young people – old people; young people – old people, from which to create structures. The structure of allegorical meanings in PN. )

 c/ Homonyms: When building an argument, if the speaker makes good use of the expressive meaning of the homonym, it will also have a positive effect on the argument’s validity. For example (69) the following: “This (1) meat is not delicious, but why is meat (2) so sweet?” (the buyer has chosen the expression meaning of the homonyms pair: “meat” (1) is a noun meaning a piece of meat; meat (2) is a verb that is transformed from the noun “meat” and is a synonym for the word “meat” ‘kill’, ‘slaughter’, for example: Meat of this chicken to treat guests. But here, the word ‘meat’ (2) is changed again. In this context it means (seller) offering too high a price (harming, detrimental to the buyer) At the same time, the word “meat” (2) combined with the word “sweet” is also used in a transitive sense, synonymous with sharp, sharp- and combined with the phrase “evil.” Both the predicate above has shown a cool attitude,seller’s disapproval.

All of the above word choices have created a system of allegorical meanings in PN (69). d/ The word reaction often suggests a series of other words, a series of YNHNH that need to guide the listener according to the association rule. This association rule is based on socio-historical conditions, habits, customs, thinking patterns, narrow contexts… and also depends on individuals, qualifications, experiences, …, for example (70) : M: Why is the fish so soft? B: God, the fish is so fresh, what should I say? The fish is rotten tomorrow, get your money back! (Buyers in (70) have chosen and used very expensively the combination of the words “soft” and “sì” with stimulating effects, creating negative associations, suggesting to come to conjectural conclusions. is: criticizing bad fish, poor quality, for the purpose of buying cheap. Next, the seller also proved not to be inferior,immediately use the decryption mechanism and immediately choose the correct interpretation of the hidden function with the buyer’s intention, as we have analyzed above. Of course, in order to decipher correctly, the seller relied on the meaningful components of the word combination “soft” “sì” to bring. After choosing the most accurate interpretation, the seller continued to choose another HT PN to respond in the most appropriate way. Next, the seller only refutes the idea of ​​YNHNh but does not object to the explicit meaning in the buyer’s PN above. )The seller only objected to YNHNh but did not object to the explicit meaning in the buyer’s PN above. )The seller only objected to YNHNh but did not object to the explicit meaning in the buyer’s PN above. )

Date published: 01/11/2021
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