Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 17
2.5.5. Ask to prove that what you say is true: “Proof” is the basis to ensure the fact is true. “Prove” is to make it clear to the listener that it is true, by the very reason, by the fact that the speaker gives. In MB, people often use this contract, consider example (55), see appendix: No. 117, tr77): (the buyer pays the price by PNHTT, but the seller replies with an indirect PNH about the price of jeans for display. disagree with the price offered by the buyer.
Next, the seller borrows PNH indirectly to prove to the buyer that the price offered by the buyer is completely unreasonable. The seller proves what he is saying is true and convinces the buyer that the price offered is reasonable. ) 2.5.6. Ask for confirmation (eg (56), see appendix, conversation 118, p.78) 2.5.7.
Ask to promise (example (57), see Appendix : conversation number 119, p.78) 2.5.8. Ask for help (for example (58), (59) see the appendix: No. 120, p.78; No. 121, p.79) 2.5.9. Ask for doubt (eg (60), (61) see appendix: No. 122, p.79; No. 123, p.79) (2.5.10. Question to judge); (2.5.11 Ask to be modest or to show politeness); (2.5.12 Ask to turn); (2.5.13 Ask to criticize); (2.5.14 Ask for praise); (2.5.15. Asking for help); (2.5.16. Asking to express the customer’s wish to allow the contact); (2.5.17. Ask to get acquainted); (2.5.18 Ask to say hello); (2.5.19. Ask to create a potential new opportunity for customers); (2.5.20 Ask to gather more information about customer needs); (2.5.21.
Ask to introduce yourself to products for sale); (2.5.22 Ask to provide customers with necessary information); (2.5.23. Asking for customer opinions); (2.5.24 Ask to invite); (2.5.25 Ask for suggestions); (2.5.26. Asking to express concern and sincere affection for customers); (2.5.27.Ask to suggest ideas, stimulate thinking and research of customers); (2.5.28. Asking to maintain the relationship to perform future purchases); (2.5.29. Ask to present the problem); (2.5.30. Ask to hear what the customer wants to say); (2.5.31 Asking to promote agreed interests); (2.5.32 Ask to make sure customers know what to expect from them); (2.5.33. Asking partners to freely express their opinions); (2.5.34.
Ask to take the initiative, to listen); (2.5.35. Ask to generate enthusiasm); (2.5.36. Ask to seek ideas from customers); (2.5.37. Asking to build customer pride and confidence); (2.5.38. Ask to access and exploit information from customers); (2.5.39. Ask questions to check understanding); (2.5.40. Asking to understand the level of interest and related attitudes); (2.5.41 Ask to relieve stress); (2.5.42 Ask to bring the conversation back to the main destination); (2.5.43.
Ask for consent…) 2.6. CONCLUSION 1. To elucidate the nature of the act of asking in business communication , the thesis cannot fail to identify the difference between the act of asking and the utterance of asking, so that, from there, proceed to distinguish a principled way. rules, creating the most general overview of the types of questioning actions, between direct questioning and indirect questioning, between different types of indirect asking actions contained in Vietnamese utterances. 2.
While establishing the nature of the above distinction, the issue that should be of primary concern is how to demonstrate the effectiveness of communication from the different possible pressures of the choice structure to create the allegorical meaning of the act of asking. Indirect. 3. On that basis, in the general comparison, it can be said that PN containing indirect allegorical questioning is a kind of structure formed with high pragmatic content, with new direct connection. Expanding scientific vision with mechanisms of semiotics, sociolinguistics, psychology…
4. We further researched the specific illustrative issues of Vietnamese people’s buying and selling conversation: PN contains the OS in the opening dialogue and some specific indirect questioning actions.
CHAPTER 3: HIDDEN MEANINGS V MECHANISM OF MAKING THE MEANINGS OF WORD MEANINGS OF ANSWERS CONTAINS ASKING ACTIONS IN COMMUNICATION OF BUYING BN 3.1. OVERVIEW OF IMPACT MEANING 3.1.1.
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The role of implicit meaning The magic of NN allows GT people to express ideas not only in the explicit but also in the implicit. It is this vague, round, and distant way of saying that creates the attractive and unique nature of NN. In GT, descriptive PNs usually account for a very low proportion, rarely the speaker describes just to describe, but to announce something, or to direct the listener to some information outside the NN signal. being described.
People do not only speak verbally, but also verbally. In fact, YNH NH has a very important position in the agricultural heritage of all ethnic groups in the world in general, and of the Vietnamese people in particular. Especially in MB topic, the temporary relationship between buyer and seller exists mainly on mutual benefits, which is a favorable environment for the development of YNH. Even with normal GT, the obvious meaning is usually just a “necessary” condition, while YNHANH is really a “sufficient” condition for a PN’s information to be understood. YNHNH is sometimes a favorable condition for the delicate way of communication, “speaks less, understands more”, but sometimes YNH NH causes great difficulties and obstacles for understanding each other in the context of foreign languages. When taking the object as the research operating system, besides the explicit information system, we pay special attention to the implicit information system.
In the GTMB environment, if the PN containing the OS plays an important and highly specific role, the PN containing the OSGT in the form of an implicit message closely associated with the CTLC shows the highest specificity (statistics shown in Fig. section 2.4.1 p.99). YNHNh and the mechanism of creating allegorical meanings have made an important contribution to the proof, suggesting theoretical awareness of their distinct implicit characteristics in conversation theory. It is a types of CTTB that are both explicit and implicit in order to establish the validity of GT in an allegorical direction. It is the implicit mechanism that takes the explicit structure as the container that helps us to explain the formation and operation of CTLC.
It is the implicit meaning-making mechanism of this chapter that belongs to the linguistic element of CTLC to create implicit meaning. It has clarified the relationship between pragmatic theory, semiotics, cognitive linguistics, sociological language, cultural language; and deal with the relationship between the categories of NN and non-NN; NN categories and reference expressions. 3.1.2. Why use many hidden meanings in sales communication?
a/ Social causes: The following social causes have led to the high use of YNH NH: the phenomenon of traditional taboos; or by avoiding certain phenomena related to problems such as unlucky things, not good things, avoiding profanity…; or to increase the persuasiveness of speech; or want to show modesty; or irony, irony; or to keep politeness in GT with two main principles (avoid imposing an “I” on the interlocutor); (saving face, don’t want to directly lose face of listeners); or the interlocutor wants to ensure safety, flexibility in GT, or does not want to be directly responsible for what he or she says. Going back to examples (3, p.21) and (42, p.87), we can see that clearly. Social causes are also reflected in finding consensus and avoiding disagreements; or because of the color of culture and ethnicity in each country…
The social causes of the above YNH NH role not only have a great influence on GT in general, but they also manifest more specifically in the GTMB environment. In addition, in the traffic congestion environment, the role of YNHNH is also governed by very specific causes of traffic congestion.
That is: 1/ Derived from the domination of the principle of interest in trading. 2/ Trafficking in Vietnam mainly takes place at the market with the distinctive feature that the seller has the right to challenge, the buyer has the right to bargain. As a result, the verbal GT here often takes place in the debate about price and quality. 3/ Derived from the characteristics of folklore, the principle of respect has strongly influenced GT in general and urban traffic in particular. It makes Vietnamese people afraid to speak directly about “benefits”, preferring a roundabout way of talking… b/ Psychological reasons Derived from the specificity of the transaction value, the CEO factor and the predestination are deep in the buyer’s psychology. and the seller greatly influenced the implicit message in the CTLC. To be more specific, the GT mentality here is best expressed through understanding each other’s intentions. Simultaneously,The understanding of each other’s intentions in the interaction relationship in the context of GT both functions as a premise, puts pressure on the pre-estimate factor, and the very specific CEO factor belongs to the implicit message of GTMB.
All these factors overlap, depend on each other, influence each other and on that basis have opened up a very wide potential for pragmatic functionalism. The questioner in the transaction is governed by the principles of politeness, the principle of rights, etc., so it is imperative that they have to choose the state and non-state factors so that at the same time they have to achieve many purposes that if the banks only have Expressive information alone is not enough. . The things the speaker wants to communicate always and always outnumber what is said in words both in breadth and depth. Therefore, in the field of GTMB, it is very common to use PNHs containing YNHÂ, conveying at least one explicit information and many implicit information.
3.1.3. Research Status Implicit Meaning The question “how” was Orecchioni. K. C replied: “In order to understand YNHNH, it is necessary to have explanatory skills”. Pragmatic researchers such as Hoang Phe, Do Huu Chau, Nguyen Duc Dan, Cao Xuan Hao… have classified YNHNH, pointing out the violation of conversation rules to create unnatural YNHNh, the relationship between the motto 112 Grice’s conversational collaboration…The authors are interested in the explanatory mechanism, but they have not yet provided a specific explanation, in the specific domain of GT reality.
Applying YNH NH theory to specific problems of the Vietnamese language has the work of Dang Thi Hao Tam , presenting the mechanism to explain YNH NH by encyclopedic knowledge, linguistic intelligence, logical intelligence… of Vietnamese teachers. Indirect. Works of Le Dong ; Nguyen Thi Thin ; Nguyen Thi Luong; Le Anh Xuan also talked about some related aspects, but no author has studied the implicit meaning and the mechanism of making implicit meanings in the operating system of the GTMB. Based on the results of previous researchers, we have applied and researched the above issues in a specific field, in a specific language activity, of a particular country in order to respond, explain, answer and try to sketch out a specific model, a specific mechanism for the above problems. 3.1.4.Purpose and task of researching hidden meanings -It is because of the above reasons that we go into YNHNH research to overcome some of the difficulties of “understanding each other” in GT.
-The meaning of General Director of YNH NH has been studied very deeply by agricultural researchers such as: Do Huu Chau, Cao Xuan Hao, Nguyen Duc Dan, Le Dong… so YNHNH of the OS in GTMB. 1/ The ways in the mechanism of creating YNH anthropology of the operating system in the GTMB conversation at the semantic level are at the level of semantic vocabulary. 2/ The ways in the mechanism of creating the anthropomorphic YNH of the OS in the GTMB conversation at the semantic – pragmatic level. 3/ The ways in the mechanism of creating YNH anthropology are applied from the cultural schemata of Vietnamese people, the thinking of Vietnamese people. 113 4/ We want to give a mechanism structure that is both general formulaic and proven through specific examples. The ways and rules for using a finite number of units,available to generate an infinite number of PNH (implicit meanings) units, to meet our diverse GT needs. 5/ Usually, researchers when studying the problem of YNH NH pay attention to the speaking role but pay little attention to the listening role. Here, we want to give a common mechanism for both roles: the speaking role relies on it to create YNHÍ (coding process), and the listening role also relies on it to perceive, to reason (describe). code).
From the above, we define the task of answering the following questions: 1/ How is a large amount of unspoken things perceived by both listeners and researchers as informed things? ? 2/ How to infer YNHANH? What determines the choice between what is said and what is not said? Does CTLC generate YNHNH? 3/ If the majority of Vietnamese people have the ability to recognize YNHNH on the same language activity in a relatively similar manner, an inevitable corollary must be concluded that: is there a certain mechanism containing these factors? certain rules are formed deterministically in YNHANH? 4/ Does the study of YNHNH have proved the magical connotative power and subtlety, subtlety, attractiveness, and uniqueness of Vietnamese language of CTLC in terms of semantics and pragmatics in GT in general and in spoken language? Vietnamese only? 3.1.5. Related Basic Concepts Each speaker’s PN has the purpose of conveying to the listener a certain message, usually consisting of two parts:
1/ Part ND the first meaning is the direct meaning, because the speaker speaks directly through a combination of signals; listeners also receive directly thanks to the verbatim meaning of the NN signal elements that the speaker uses: explicit meaning. 114 2/ The second meaning is an indirect meaning, not directly on the words, but to get them, the speaker must use a mechanism to create another layer of meaning, implicitly outside that sentence. . Listeners also receive indirect, forced through the mechanism and perform inference operations, perform the process of decoding and interpreting YNHÂ classes (including CEO and implication). The implication is all the concepts that can be inferred from the explicit and general meaning of the implicit and explicit meaning in the PN, which is deeply dependent on the GT context.
A signal according to Pierce is an entity with three sides, including: the container of the signal (relationship of names: by sound, written word, the part received, the relationship between signal and signal, creating the final direction. learn); the container of the signal (reflection relation, which is the part to understand, is the relationship between the signal and the thing, corresponding to what is contained in the semantic dimension); the explanation through the signal (perceptual relationship and explanation, which is the part to understand, explain, the relationship between the signal and the explainer, corresponding to the explanation that makes up the pragmatic dimension). The concept of explanation must be understood in a broad sense, associated with factors such as context, …
3.1.6. Classification of implicit meanings (based on 3 classification criteria)
1/ Based on the nature (semantic or pragmatic) and function in the discourse, we classify YNH NH into: YNH anthropology and YNH anthropology. 2/ Based on the presumptive conditions that are present before speaking and the conclusions drawn after speaking, we classify YNH NH as: General Director and allegorical. 3/ Based on the reasoning strategy of the coder and decoder in pragmatics, we classify YNHNH into: theoretical YNHNH and practical YNHNH.
YNHNH’s extroversion is most evident in his reasoning strategy. Because the argumentative strategy is to fulfill the speaker’s speaking purpose, directing the listener to a certain conclusion, and when the listener is convinced and agrees with that conclusion, it is considered that the speaker has reached. GT efficiency. Theory is the meaning discovered when studying them theoretically by relying on a certain HT inference method, following strict, precise, and generalized logical patterns. Practicality is the meaning recognized in common sense arguments with the aim of effectiveness, the purpose of change, the strengthening of trust, sentiment, perception in the listener with the correct value of right and wrong. relative confidence, based on the non-HT inference method, has no definiteness, does not follow a certain pattern, is not strict,conjectural, imprecise, personal, specific in specific contexts, specific PN.
This type of argument is based on the semantic potential of NN in users, habits, subjective consciousness, customs, behavioral culture, etc. to orient a semantic conclusion. 3.1.7. Classification of presuppositional and allegorical meanings (over 2 criteria) 1. Based on the criterion of what is contained, the semantic meaning in terms of semantics, we classify them into: Generalization of semantics and semantic functions . 116 2. Based on the criteria of the explanation, the expressive meaning and the utilitarian meaning in the pragmatic direction, we have: utilitarian generalization and pragmatic function. For example (62), after: M: Do you think I’m in the countryside, why do you say the price is so bad?
1/ The explicit meaning of this PN is: (the buyer asks the seller); (the buyer indicated that the seller thought he was in the countryside) 2/ The YNH NH of this woman are: a/ The General Director of semantics: (There was a meeting that took place); (the seller has challenged a price that the buyer considers too high); (the buyer does not agree to buy at the price offered by the seller). b/ General Director of Practitioners: (In MB, the challenge should not be too high); (MB conversation will have a negative result if the challenge is too high) c/ Linguistic function: (buyer blames seller for “don’t know people, know me”); (thought the buyer didn’t know the price, but actually did) d/ The pragmatic function: (the buyer assumed that the seller was a rural person far from the center, so he couldn’t keep up with the information); (the seller should say the price again), (the buyer does not buy if the seller does not adjust the price)
3.2. HOW IN THE MECHANISM OF MAKING THE METHOD OF SPEAKING CONTAINING ACTION ACTION WHEN PURCHASING COMMUNICATION 3.2.1. Generalizing implied meaning The study of YNHNH involves meaning as being communicated by the speaker/writer; and is what is understood by the listener/reader/researcher. YNHNH is mainly concerned with the analysis of what people mean by PNs rather than with what the words and phrases in the PNs themselves represent. YNH NH study is the study of the meaning part of what is reported by the speaker and what is understood by the listener.
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