The old message of direct inquiry is the premise of the message structure, so it is automatically recognized, it does not need to be included in the new message, so the known distribution of information does not need to be explicitly stated. is old news – completely overlap in both question and answer roles.
As for the old news in indirect questioning, it is not only the premise of CTTB, but it is also valuable information to inform new listeners, so the old news no longer overlaps as in the TTTB. To the questioner it is old news, but to the listener it turns into new news. Based on that new message, combined with presupposition and implicit decoding mechanism, the listener will create another new message, satisfying the implicit message of the question.
b/ Unknown piece of information: The news of the information system is the key question, the obvious part of the message structure, that is, asking about something explicit, the listener does not need to use the implicit decoding mechanism, then New information of the message structure in the traffic system, although new, but implicit, is the focus of the question, but in the depth of the message structure, it asks about the unknown in an implicit way. So the new message in the act of direct questioning does not contain the old message, because the old message has a presupposition of the known, which is the premise of the message structure.
As for the new information, the traffic operation system, including the old news, is the presupposition of the known, and at the same time is the “sequence” of the CTTB, that is, the new information is announced after inference, because it is forced to combine with the decoding mechanism. hidden function, only then can new information be obtained. On the other hand, new information is the main element of the information system, so it is imperative to bring it out to ask and it is clearly expressed (clearly telling the respondents what they want); The distribution of unknown information must be stated explicitly (in the case of uncertainty, it must be contextualised).
As for the communication system, news is also the main element of information communication, but the intention of the questioner is not to give it to ask, but mainly to ask something else (not clearly telling the respondent what he wants), so the news is unknown. located underground.
18.104.22.168. The choice structure (CTLC) of the utterance contains indirect questioning
a/ When communication activities take place, there must be at least two or more interlocutors, which are verbal social actions, must have intentions, beliefs, plans, and must find ways to express how to be understood by listeners. On the contrary, the listener must choose how to understand correctly…. All forced both roles to use CTLC to achieve the goal, making their intentions turn into reality. The communication destination and the choice structure go hand in hand. The goal is what lies ahead, which is outlined as a goal towards, aimed at with a sense of need to achieve for the period.
The practical purpose is the kind of purpose that is beyond the verbal activity. The act of speaking now appears not as an end but as a means to some practical end. But in order to achieve a non-linguistic goal, the speaker must first set himself a linguistic target, to create a utterance and perform the act of speaking.
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The speaker must follow and respect the habits that the community considers the most beneficial and the most standard to form the utterance according to the stated purpose. When it comes to choices, everything has to be chosen and there are many things to choose from. If you can’t orient yourself to a certain framework, it will turn into a choice in a mess. But NN always has its rules and principles. To perform the act of indirect speech, both roles must use a choice structure with elements, closely related and mutually regulated.
For example, with the same criticism, to ensure politeness and interests in trading, people have many different implicit criticisms: “The knife is too sharp?”; “Why is it so sweet?”… The CTLC in the transaction system is a highly allegorical structure, formed from a polite strategy to ensure the interests of trading partners, on the basis of the information structure. explicit message, which includes non-verbal and linguistic elements at different levels, to establish effective communication.
CTLC is regular, familiar, and each individual, each class, and each gender in society, when performing indirect speech acts, will use them in their own way, making strategic choices through The dynamic thinking of coding and decoding processes belongs to the relationship between languages and their users at the pragmatic level.
To do so, we need to understand the vocabulary, the correct, rich and diverse grammatical means and the characteristics, meanings, ability of words to combine, the type of sentence structure, the ways of containing the elements. sentences… with different combinations and expressions, different shades of meaning, different colors and styles, different looks, different habits, different scopes of use.
Language on the one hand provides people with the ability to choose among the diverse and rich, on the other hand, CTLC also requires people to master the characteristics, properties, operating rules and relationships. subtle, complex, crisscrossing, pulling, mutually defining language. Thus, language provides an objective material premise for the choice structure, on the contrary, people understand and firmly grasp that objective material premise to realize CTLC.
b. The reason for the existence of a choice structure of utterances containing indirect questioning
The first reason, in order to achieve a practical goal, the speaker must set a linguistic goal, and must select and combine words to create a targeted utterance. Example: M: It looks like the ear meat is rare or something, right? (To achieve the goal beyond the language of wanting to buy cheap goods, the buyer created a statement containing indirect asking).
The second reason, in addition to transmitting information of CTTB, the speaker is always conditioned by the need to achieve practical goals on the principle of courtesy, rights…of buying and selling. The third reason, we have to use CTLC to show the close relationship, to regulate each other, to create the compatibility between the formal words and the content to achieve the highest efficiency. The fourth reason, each ethnic group has an extremely rich and diverse vocabulary.
In the process of social development, people become more and more aware of the world, many new things and phenomena arise and develop, and language also develops in proportion. To fulfill communication and thinking functions, language, especially vocabulary, often develops in two ways. The first way is to create a new word, that is, a word that does not simply denote a thing, but a thing can also be perceived from many different angles, from all sides in itself. and its relation to other things. Consequently, concepts of a thing can have different ways of being expressed by different names, different levels of meaning, and different nuances. Thus, each object can remind users of both familiar and specific concepts, such as a picture that appears quickly in front of their eyes, allowing them to quickly choose from a variety of different attributes of the same object. a thing. The second way is to create new meanings for existing words to name new things and phenomena.
This is also known as the synonymy path to create multi-meaning words and synonyms. Thus, we will see that there is a phenomenon of a phonetic shell but can represent many different concepts of objects and different objective phenomena. They represent the wonderful thrifty law of language, helping to resolve the contradiction between the infinity of things and the finiteness of language. A polysemy is a word that has many meanings and these meanings are related to each other.
But we notice one thing that it is not the multi-meaning structure of polysemous words and synonyms expressed at the same time, but in each certain context, each certain utterance, each meaning stroke, each meaning. position in the new multi-meaning structure actually works and becomes a reality. It shows the relationship between the polysemy and the words surrounding it in a utterance.
This forces the user to know how to choose a reasonable language to express the relationship between words and phrases in the context, and at the same time, contain thoughts and feelings more accurately, rich in expression. feeling and achieving goals in traffic management. It is obvious that any Vietnamese can use CTLC at different levels of high and low to express the GTLC. Of course, they use them as a conditioned reflex, or in the habit of using language frequently in the community. They use them without even realizing that they are using them. Our task is to separate, research, and be more aware of CTLC.
c. PN selection structure classification contains indirect questioning
According to the opposition of language and speech, we have:
Speech CTLC and Linguistic CTLC.
– According to the criteria of content and form, we have:
Content CTLC and Formal CTLC
– According to the hierarchy of meanings created, we have: CTLC of explicit meaning (secondary, premise, basis for CTLC of implicit meaning) and CTLC of implicit meaning (mainly)
– Combining two criteria of content, form and hierarchy of explicit and implicit meanings, we have: Content and explicit meaning-creation CTLC is the basis and premise to create content and form-creation CTLC. The allegorical meaning in the utterance contains indirect questioning (as the main object).
d. Content CTLC – the form of creating implied meanings in the OSG
Besides the problems of CTLC studied in Chapter 1, we also study it in another aspect, showing a two-way, mobile transformation relationship, with a close and inseparable relationship between the two images. knowledge and content of coding and decoding structures, between speaker and listener.
f1. The structure of choice of coding about the form of PN containing the communication system is used by the speaker to use typical non-NN, social and social elements in the literary work to build on the opposition within itself and against the other elements. surrounding element. Talking about coding structure about HT is talking about the linearity of NN elements in the creation process. It is not only a closed NN form but also an open operational form; sometimes it is a stable available form, sometimes it is temporarily built, due to the interaction of HT elements, building opposites on the linear shape of PN to create many layers of profound meanings.
It is also built on the principle that according to the requirements of shaping of the ND, it is not simply an object sign in the morphological category, but that selection includes the abstract side through the distribution and sequence. arrangement, logical sequence, organization, relationship associated with the words, phrases, sentences before and after it, … among the material elements of the language, to assume the function of creating implied meanings. It depends a lot on the intention and purpose of the questioner to achieve the highest real effect. Because when it comes to ND meaning and purpose, it must be said that the system of words is appropriate, there is no meaning in “floating” other than specific words and there is no system that is not connected with the ND. , or stand alone and grow. The coding structure must be understood and interpreted by the receiver in the relationship between ND and HT according to certain rules.
That forces the questioner to use the elements of the HT structure in the most suitable way to express the ND, the meaning with the highest pragmatic intentions. All of this will be discussed in detail in the selection of the most appropriate HT elements in the following three chapters. However, the HT coding structure in the PN’s CTLC contains the OSGT used to create the implied meaning, so it can often have a non-simple HT structure. The coding structure has a hidden meaning, there must be an intermediary support of external pressure, non-NN factor or from the pressure of NN factors deep inside the sentence. The structure of coding about HT often has to be based on the following bases: based on the ability to combine this word with another word; based on word usage; based on the syntactic structure of PNH…
f2. The structure of choice of coding about PN content containing the PN is used by the speaker to use the available NN elements, in the existing sense, to create a new ND meaning, and they do not have to be mechanically assembled together, but it must be based on certain rules, certain purposes. The ND coding structure in the CTLC of the PN contains the directional OS, depending on the intent and purpose of the communicator. That forces the questioner to use the elements of the meaning structure in the most suitable way to serve the highest pragmatic expression. The ND coding structure belonging to the CTLC of the cognitive system is used to express the structure of the declarative meaning, so it often has a non-simple HT structure to match the polysemantic structure.
That is, the HT structure is not in a one-to-one opposition to the ND structure, between the signifier and the signified. The structure of coding about ND is usually based on the following bases: on the nuances of meaning, nuances of the style of words; based on territorial prevalence; based on the scope of use (limited or unrestricted; broad or narrow…); relying on expressively-strengthened words as opposed to expressively-untrained words; based on usage; difference in meaning…
f3. The structure of choice for decoding about the PN form contains the interpretation of the meaning and the interpretation of the meaning (based on the HT of the transmitter’s PN), having the rules of the listener and the decoder, that is, clarifying the structure. semantics through the HT structure, according to the two-way relationship between the two factors encoding and decoding in CTLC. In order to implement the decoding structure, listeners need to understand the interrelationships between words, phrases, sentences, contexts… that the speaker has selected; in turn, must also implement a mechanism to interpret the meaning of how to understand based on the HT signs that the transmitter has set up. The HT decoding structure is an important basis for grasping the ND structure and must be combined with pressure factors outside the NN.
It is explained in terms of the relationship of the NN signals in the PN structure. Each PN containing the speech activity is itself an HT structure. The elements of the neural system express them not only as interdependent but also on the system as a whole. The choice, structure, and combination of HT elements are determined by many different factors inside and outside the system, but the most dominant factor is still the intention of the transmitter. The HT elements in the OS must be closely related, appropriate, explain and support each other so that listeners will rely on that to explain. No is placed in close association with ND. In order to decipher them, we must not only place them in their individuality but also consciously place them in the general nature, the “deep and total pressure of the meaning mechanism” is more strongly influenced. again.