4. PURPOSE – TASKS – RESEARCH SUBJECTS
The thesis focuses on answering the following questions to clarify the pragmatic aspect of the act of asking: What do we do when we speak? What do we really say when we speak? Why did I ask my friend if he could give the book to me, when it was obvious that he could? Who told whom? Who said? Tell who? Who do you think I am to talk to me like that? Is that clear or is it still vague? Apart from the superficial verbal meaning, what other meanings does the utterance have? How can those meanings be understood behind the surface of the words? … The thesis studies on speaking acts, more narrowly asking acts, in speaking events belonging to a broader field than conversational analysis (conversational analysis). ).
In trying to express oneself, one not only creates utterances containing grammatical structures and words, but one also performs actions using those utterances. Study the act of speaking not only in individual utterances, but in a set of utterances.
The main speaking event is a collection of utterances with social situations involving many participants; they must have a certain type of social relationship; they have to perform in a particular occasion or a particular situation; and they must have separate goals.
This is all expressed in the broader field of conversation analysis, which uncovers what and how the linguistic features of conversation are and is expressed. The thesis proposes the structure of choice in the act of asking. The act of asking in the field of communication is a great concern of sociolinguistics in general and pragmatics in particular.
The research and application of them in real-life communication is our first purpose. The next purpose is based on the data of the language of sale, we identify the real elements in the operating system of pragmatic theory and the problems related to this theory from the perspective of application, especially the problem of pragmatics. language standards and politeness factors in business communication.
From the above purpose, the thesis aims at the following main objects and tasks:
- Distinguish between asking utterances and asking actions; act of asking direct – indirect
- Study the OS in the opening statement of the purchase and sale dialogue.
- Divide the sub-categories of asking actions.
- Studying the epistemological – semantic – pragmatic aspects of utterances containing direct and indirect questioning.
- Studying the pragmatic factors of the notification structure, the choice structure of the utterance containing the act of asking in buying and selling through the vocative word system; reasoning methods; implicit meaning-making mechanism; national cultural feature maps….
- Study the notification structure and the selection structure of the utterance containing direct and indirect questioning.
- Explain the implicit mechanism of the utterance containing the act of asking from the perspective of national cultural characteristics and linguistic thinking of the Vietnamese.
- Through the study of the above specific issues, the generalization of the highly allegorical choice structure is an inevitable product of communication theory and pragmatic theory.
5. RESEARCH RESOURCES AND METHODS
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5. 1. SOURCE OF MATERIALS
- The materials are collected from the following sources: foreign trade dictionary; commercial dictionary; all kinds of technical textbooks on international trade… The materials are also collected from face-to-face interviews or from recorded dialogues and converted into written form in the natural language of different classes of buyers and sellers, mainly the environment of markets, supermarkets, shops.
- We also rely on theoretical documents and practical research on pragmatic theory, communication theory, semiotic theory…
5.2. METHODS OF HANDLING OF MATERIALS
First, we observe and record the conversation. Next is a corpus diary, recording communicative contextual factors and non-verbal factors. Then listen again, convert the dialogue into written form. Finally, mark the statements containing the act of asking, profiling, classifying, and analyzing documents.
5. 3. RESEARCH METHODS AND METHODS
This thesis is carried out in the direction of linking theory with social practice in language use, so we have used the following general methods:
5.3.1. Statistical and inductive methods
We statistics the frequency of occurrence of elements in the act of asking and asking utterances on the mentioned corpus sources. Statistical results will be used to draw out the characteristics of the research object (quantitative statistics to draw and induct qualitative conclusions) which are practical bases for scientific data authenticity, proof, persuasion.
5. 3.2. Analytical methods combined with synthesis methods
These methods are useful for analyzing the act of asking in its context of use. The relationship with the broad and narrow context will help the act of asking to reveal the relationship with other factors. Based on the pair of dialogues containing the act of asking and the act of answering, we analyze the factors that follow them.
For the act of asking is done by informal questioning, the analytical method must also stick to contextual factors, contextual factors such as: speaker, listener, purpose. or communication intent, background knowledge, the words placed before and after the utterance containing the act of asking…
In addition to using analytical methods, we also use a combination of synthetic methods, generalizing the problem in a grounded way, that is, analyzing and synthesizing, deductive and inductive to handle the problem. good problems.
5.3.3. Descriptive technique
We apply the method of describing the structure – semantics – the method of constructing utterances with the meaning of asking actions, linguistic and non-linguistic factors accompanying the act of asking…
5.3.4. Methods of investigation and test by interview
We have directly investigated the subjects involved in buying and selling activities in an objective and natural way (see the appendix table).
5. 3.5. Method of comparison
This method is used to examine the similarities and differences between the factors of direct and indirect questioning, to create the basis for the method of analysis, synthesis, description, etc. to be implemented accurately and effectively. more fruitful.
5.3.6. Field method
This thesis is carried out in the direction of linking theory with social practice in the use of language, so besides the general methods, we have used the field method as the main specific method. fact to collect data from face-to-face interviews, voice recordings in the scope of sales. Then rely on and process well the source material to come to conclusions.
6. RESEARCH SCOPE
6. 1. Including the official question statement – the unofficial question statement.
6.2. Research on utterances and interrogation is the requirement to provide what is announced by the speaker and what is understood by the listener..
6. 3. The previous works often only paid attention to the questioner’s utterance, but paid little attention to the listener’s utterance. The thesis focuses on studying both the process of coding to create the asking action of the question utterance in the questioner, the decoding process of what is understood to create the response action, and sometimes by the act of asking and answering (questioning again). ) of the listener directly or indirectly.
6. 4. The research object of the thesis is wide and complex, so the implementation of the thesis is explained by many related aspects. These are communication theory, pragmatic theory, conversation theory, language act theory. They are concretized by theories when applied such as: the theory of communication effectiveness, the theory of coding and decoding principles, the theory of non-NN pressure, the theory of structural features Selection…
7. PROSPECTIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE THESIS
The first is to categorize the act of asking in a general and systematic way.
Next, by determining the act of indirect questioning, from the specific characteristics of the buying and selling communication environment, we suggest that the choice structure conversation theory is a form of communication structure that is both explicit and unambiguous. language function. This choice structure is both explicit and implicit, in fact, it is a structure that establishes the effectiveness of communication in the allegorical direction, taking the explicit structure as the container.
The choice structure is the structure that creates meaning and creates communication effect, which is established in the direction of dividing the meaning level according to the associative system, in the allegorical direction (without segmenting reality according to the paradigm), associated with the semantic mechanism. Its use is the result of making the most of non-verbal factors, linguistic factors, associated with typical socio-linguistic thinking, with its own characteristics of trading GT.
The discovery and explanation of the formation and operation of CTLC is highly figurative, which can be seen as a good opportunity for us to expand our understanding into higher levels of pragmatics. such as: how to handle the relationship between language and non-NN categories for coders and decoders in the process of using; interpretation of the relationship between language and referential expressions (established through the act of projecting objects of the communicator) according to the principle of transcoding from the semiotic mechanism.
The choice structure is a kind of meta-linguistic convention, or a kind of complex metaphor. Because they are established from the language code, but in reality, their true communicative effect is often no longer based on the inherent physical meaning of the language.
In other words, the real language here has been coded in the non-linguistic direction and vice versa, it can be said that this is also the process of linguisticizing non-linguistic elements.
This problem cannot escape the radical view of the theoretical mechanism of semiotics with the addition of cognitive linguistics, and with it, it must be an open linguistic vision towards sociology. and cultural studies.