Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 13
The utterance containing the OSGT has a syntactic structure similar to the syntactic structure of the utterance containing the OS. So the problem is: based on what to confirm that a NN system among PNs with the same phonetic shell contains PTH or not PTH? At the same time, based on what basis to confirm that a linguistic system in sentences with the same phonetic shell is that the system of PN contains a cognitive system or a mathematical system? We explain in the difference in content, based on signs of semantic and pragmatic elements in terms of content. It coincides with the basic structure of the utterance containing the information system, consisting of two parts: the sentence frame and the question means.
When it comes to the means of questioning in the context of communication, we pay special attention to the class of verbs in Vietnamese – which plays an important role in marking modal meanings, both at the word level and at the sentence level. It also performs two other important functions, which is to help listeners easily distinguish between the TT-TS and the catalyst in the interpretation and creation of YNH. That is the true effect of the adverb in the role of creating questions according to the speaker’s intention in the communication system.
Vietnamese adjectives are the main factors that play the role of marking the value of the formal structure to create the value of the semantic and pragmatic content structure. Considering the history of Vietnamese lexical research, there have been many researches on Vietnamese lexical verbs from the perspective of grammatical function, from the perspective of quality of meaning, from the perspective of semiotics. Here, we do not repeat that aspect of the adverbial word, but emphasize the vanity in communication activities, especially communication activities. This is the most significant difference in terms of formality between the information system and the traffic system. Talking about the role of destructive Vietnamese words, we pay attention to the interpretation of naughty words from the perspective of semiotics by Do Huu Chau and in GT activities of Nguyen Lai [97, 101] about the meaning of the category of real damaged words. When examining vanity words, we should not misunderstand that “corruption is associated with the state of “atrophy” or “loss of meaning”, but must understand that it is a phenomenon of creating new meanings.
– (13 ) “She’s become pretty these days, isn’t she?” (+) (with bad word out)
– (14 )” Isn’t she pretty these days?” (-) (no bad word out)
If the word “out” is removed, the grammatical meaning of (14) will change, from utterances expressing bold critical attitude, subjective assessment, to utterances that are not modal (cannot be accompanied by an essay). from the state of mind” right”), losing the amount of information about the critical attitude, the positive psycho-emotional properties about the beauty of the subject.
The utterance containing the synonyms has a specialized interrogation device, including a system of specialized interrogative means such as: interrogative pronouns, interrogative conjunctions, interrogative adverbs, and interrogative particles. In particular, unlike the conventional system, in the utterance containing the communication system, the means of asking interrogative pronouns and interrogative adverbs occupy an important position, with a relatively larger number than the means of asking interrogative pronouns and interrogative conjunctions. , because the particle, the modal phrase often denotes the modal meaning, which is related to the sincere or insincere condition of the act of asking. The utterance containing the operating system is similar in form to the utterance containing the operating system that we presented [section 2.2.1, p. 63]. Example (15): M: What fabric is this bag made of? 50 okay? (The buyer’s intention is bad, aiming to pay cheap); B: Do you buy or sell? You bring it here, I’ll buy it for you for 80 yen! (Seller’s OS (15) is used to express displeasure and sarcasm, asking with the HT structure whether to use the “good” conjugation but not asking the listener to answer or offer the possibility of a choice. The obvious meaning is to change the selling role to the buying role, but the purpose is to say that if necessary at that price the seller is willing to change the selling role to the buying role, that is, from the role of the profit maker to the role of the earner. At the same time, the seller also asserts that his goods are of good quality, cannot be sold cheaper than the price of 80, even more so because the price of 80 is the income, not the price. It is not the selling price. Moreover, if it is sold for 80, it means that the seller is selling cheap and selling at break-even. , and the seller will again entice buyers to buy his goods easier next time… The interrogative device can appear in different grammatical positions in the sentence and sometimes in the place of the element. attitude of the central predicate (back to the example) [7, p. sixty four]. As for intonation, it is one of the specialized means of asking questions. But with Vietnamese, which is an isolated, detailed language, not every question Vietnamese people raise their voice at the end of a sentence. Therefore, the question intonation is only a necessary condition and the sufficient condition must be a combination of background knowledge about the context. It is one of the basic and important issues as a basis for distinguishing: the act of asking or not the act of asking; OST or OST; figurative or figurative meaning.
22.214.171.124. The PN containing the traffic system does not have a dedicated interrogation facility
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Speech of this type is usually understood only by inference combined with intonation and context. We can return to the example (10 p. 70), to see this clearly.
2.3.2. The semantic aspect of indirect questioning
126.96.36.199. Descriptive meaning of utterances containing OSGT
In addition to the descriptive meaning class, the utterance containing the operating system also includes many other layers of meaning in the same propositional content. As example (16): M: Don’t you see the lunch market a lot? (Buyers in (16) not only describe the idea of the lunch market but also want through the description of the lunch market to express another meaning that there are no customers, but when there are no customers, few people will buy, if the seller does not sell. If it’s cheap, the goods will be damaged too, …); B: It’s only a small loss, how do you tell me to sell it cheaply? (The seller understood the lunch market in a different descriptive sense “because of the lunch market, I sold it too cheaply”, so the answer seems to have nothing to do with the buyer’s PNH, but it really is. fits very well with the other second and third class of meanings…)
On the one hand, the utterance containing the PN is similar to the utterance containing the PN in that the descriptive meaning component is closely related to the syntactic structure of the PN. On the other hand, it is different from the PN containing the information system in that: in the information system, the descriptive meaning component is the part that has the closest relationship with the syntactic structure of the utterance; In the context of communication, the component of modal meaning is pushed to the top position, and the component of descriptive meaning is ranked lower, especially for questions containing nonverbal means and colloquial combinations. The semantic roles of the entity participate in the facts in the utterance, helping us to determine the meaning of the sentence components, while the syntactic structure helps to express the speaker’s view of things, contributing to the identification of categories. Criminal can reflect the descriptive meaning of the sentence.
a. The object of the utterance contains the act of asking indirectly
The statement containing the traffic order must talk about a certain situation, and at the same time direct the respondent to fall into another, more important situation that the questioner really wants to aim for, the questioner and the respondent not only have a situation but There can be many things, towards many different segments of reality.
b. The content of the question clause of the statement expressing the OSGT
Must contain the unknown point – what needs to be clarified in the respondent’s statement. The propositional content of the utterance containing the OSGT is expressed indirectly. The unknown point does not appear on the surface of the utterance, but only indirectly through the content of the question clause. It is different from the unknown, unknown point in the information system. The descriptive meaning structure of the utterance containing the context is a predicate-argument structure, including: the question predicate and the meaning of the arguments surrounding the question predicate: the question subject argument, the next object argument. receive the query, and the subject of the PN’s inquired object contains the OSGT.
c. The question predicate of the utterance contains the indirect act of asking
Are verbs and adjectives that have a meaning related to indirectly asking in a utterance, with the general meaning that, although not explicitly saying what you want, but want others to respond or answer for you. a problem was raised indirectly in the question.
d. Arguing the question subject of the utterance containing the OSGT (Sp1)
The meaning of Sp1 is as follows: the first is about the social role: the role of a buyer or a seller; The second is about the situation, when performing the PN, Sp1 does not expect Sp2 to answer and provide information that he already knows (although Sp1 asked on the surface of PN, but that is information Sp1 already knows). What Sp1 wants is for Sp2 to follow another action, or to follow new information of the hidden situation that Sp1 has aimed at through borrowing the act of asking. At the same time, Sp1 believes that Sp2 has the ability to reason and understand what he did not say on the surface of PN. Sp1 believes that Sp2 will implicitly respond and provide the information it needs to know.
e. Argument the receiver of the utterance containing the OSGT (Sp2)
When receiving the OS, Sp2 is naturally bound and responsible to answer out of courtesy… And Sp2 will make inferences and will understand the true meaning of Sp1. How and how much to understand depends on habits, background knowledge, context…
g. Argument the object in question of a statement containing OSGT
It is a matter that Sp1 sincerely wants Sp2 to do, and the Activity responds to the Act that Sp1 has directed towards in an unambiguous way, especially the OS in MB which is related to Sp1 and Sp2 both in terms of rights and obligations. . At the same time, there is an element of insincerity in terms of the information that Sp1 asks on the PN surface, because it is really known that Sp1 does not need the listener to answer at that question point but at another indirect question point. . The action that Sp1 wants Sp2 to do hasn’t happened yet when Sp1 asks for it because it’s in Sp1’s mind. Therefore, Sp1 wants Sp2 to do something else through the object argument in question. This activity may or may not be performed by Sp2 depending on the reception (decoding) of Sp2.
188.8.131.52. The modal meaning of the propositional content of PN contains the OSGT
That is the modality factor, which evaluates the expression in the structure of the implied meaning.
1/ At the lexical level, it is related to the modal meanings of real words and false words. The modal meaning of real words, especially vanity words, is related to the expressive meaning components in the predicate, pronoun, auxiliary, conjunction, and modal particle used to ask questions. Classification of modal meanings: based on the relationship between the facts and the subject of the utterance, we have: objective modal meanings; subjective modal meaning (which is the main modal component of the traffic system); Based on the nature of modal meaning, we have: modal meaning denotes affirmative, negative, surprised, broken, demanding, …
2/ At the grammatical level, we pay attention to the true effect of the vanity in the function of creating the modal meaning of the utterance. That is the meaning of the allegorical modality of the specialized interrogative means representing the communication system and the meaning of the allegorical modality of the content of the statement. The modal element in a stable position combined with intonation and context has created presuppositions and meanings implicit in the modal meaning structure, the content of the indirect question clause. As a result, we have questions, but we don’t ask questions, but we use the act of asking for different purposes, creating a different traffic system.
Also at the grammar level, we also pay attention to learn the structure of the allegorical modality framework of the question purpose of the GT: modal predicate and the arguments surrounding the modal predicate: the argument of the mood subject. state, the object argument receives the state, and the argument the state of the object is asked.
The modal predicate of the communication system is a meaningful component indicating the speaker’s attitude and assessment to the utterance content and to the interlocutor. The first is the speaker’s assessment attitude to the informed or asked utterance content but actually knew about the obvious situation on the question, borrowing the predicate of the interrogative modality to aim at another state that is not obvious. . At the same time, with the attitude of believing that the listener can provide implicit information or direct the listener to other actions according to his or her intentions, it was expressed by the attitude of asking and expressed by the predicate of the question in question. reasoning and coding mechanisms. On the contrary, listeners express by responding actions to the communication system, in the inference mechanism and decipher the discourse by other modal predicate. Example (17): M: You seem to be underweight, right? (The modal predicates are “weigh” and “small.” The buyer asked the seller if the weight was too small, but the buyer really wanted to tell the seller to reduce his money); B: God, no less! You just give enough, I will sell! (The seller has understood the buyer’s intention that it is not a question of asking whether the weight is underweight or not. The seller has explained the above IMPACT mechanism, so he pointed at the right point where the seller wanted to answer and the seller replaced this modal predicate (weigh – non) with another modal predicate (weighing – non) reduce, give, enough, new) The second is the speaker’s evaluation attitude towards the listener, which is the attitude affecting the communication object associated with indirect intentions and goals. use linguistic elements to indicate the desire, the request to provide new information in an implicit way, or to express the attitude of calling for action to respond, targeting the object according to their intentions, not not the purpose of knowing what is being asked is evident in the words.
b. Arguing the modal subject of utterances containing OSGT
The speaker acts as the subject of the mood. Mood is determined by the speaker’s point of view and attitude. It reflects the position of the subject of the utterance; The speaker’s attitude and purpose are implicit in the communication system. To do this, the questioner must make good use of the implicit meaning-making mechanism (coding mechanism) in combination with the necessary and sufficient conditions as described above.
c. The argument of the receiver object of the utterance containing the OST is the object of the listener, which is the response or evaluation of the modality to the state given by the subject of the question. Whether the answer is sincere or not depends on many factors, but the main one is still the corresponding response. They must make good use of inference manipulation in the mechanism of decoding the implicit meaning, in order to receive and evaluate the corresponding state.
d. The subject state parameter in question of the utterance containing the OSGT is the object of assessing the state of the person communicating with the situation mentioned in the question. Example (18): M: Is it possible that I have paid for the old one already? (the buyer in (18) stated the object of the question but not the purpose of the question to answer new information, because for the questioner, this is old news.The buyer indirectly directs the seller to the contract of requirements and suggestions of the me for the purpose of buying on credit and calling and suggesting the seller to sell me the goods again. ); B: But there are two more carriages ahead, right? (The respondent in (18) immediately understood and could immediately decipher, thus creating a new coding mechanism, a second new fact to express disagreement with the second situation. Best. ); M: Can I close this prescription again and then cancel it? (The acquirer continues to return to the role of the subject of the mood, immediately creating a new coding mechanism, the third new case to express disagreement and insisting to oppose the second situation); B: No, the line is so tight these days, forgive me! (fourth coding mechanism…)