Vietnamese linking grammar model - 33

Type particle Classical feature Word Example Link Name Link Example
Intransitive verb (Vi) Not used in the passive voice operation: no modifier required breathing, sitting, standing, lying down, sleeping, waking, (engine) exploding, (horn) whistling, (wind) blowing ViAp
ViEp+
SV- & {RtVi- or RpVi- or
RfVi- or RpVi+}
gusty
sleep on bed)
baby will sleep, baby will sleep, I sleep
  Psychophysiology: does not require complements cry, laugh, cry, … . /    
transitive verb (Vt) action: requires the complement only when the object is affected cut (grass), chop (firewood), tear, chop, sow, nurse SV- & O+- &{VtEp}
SV- & O+- &{Vt A-}
VmVt-
lumber worker
I sow seed on (yard)
it cuts the grass (very) fast
(sowing) is sown
  artifact: requires real from the object instance to be created. write (newspaper), draw, hewn, trim, carve, invent, invent SV- & O+- &{Vt A-}
SV- & VmVt-
i sharpen the pencil
I sharpen my pencil carefully
Invented electric light
  receive and receive: requires 2 direct and indirect complements give, send, give, give, report, notify, receive SV- & IO+ & O +
SV- & O+ & VtEg+ & EgNt+
SV- &VmVt- & O+
I give the baby a book
I give books to babies
the baby is given a book
  imperative: requires the direct complement and the “consenting content” causes wrong, tell, cause, guide, consider, promote
make (for, break), cause (for), break (break)
SV- & IO+ & VtVt
SV- & IO+ & VtVt+
SV-&VmVt- &VtVs+
SV- & VtVs+ & O+
SV- & O+ & VtVs+
SV- &{Rt Vt- or RpVt- or
RfVt-} & {VmVt- }&
{RpVt+}
I told him to go to school
The boss asked the staff to turn off the lights
he was promoted to be (foreman)
I broke the bowl
I broke the bowl
the bowl is broken
  effect: requires the direct object and/or target of the action pull, push, push. press, tilt, place… SV- &{Rt Vt or RpVt or
RfVt}& O+
&VtEs+&{RpVt+}
SV- &VtEs+ & O+
SV-& {O+} &(VtN+
orVtPp+)
I put the book on the table, I’m putting
the book on the table, I put the book
on the table.
I reached the book table
I force my children to eat, my parents force me to get married
forced to work
  move run, crawl, roll…
go (this verb has a special use in Vietnamese: go to school, go
swim, play. . .)
SV- &{Rt Vt -or RpVt- or
RfVt-} & {VtEp+}&{RpVt+}
SV-& {Rt Vt -or RpVt- or
RfVt-} & VtEm
SV-& {Rt Vt -or RpVt- or
RfVt-} & CH+
SV- & {Rt Vt or RpVt or
RfVt} & O+
SV- &{Rt Vt -or RpVt- or
RfVt-} & {VtEp+}&{RpVt+}
SV- & {Rt Vt -or RpVt- or
RfVt-} & GO+
 
I’m climbing (mountain)
,
it came by motorbike,
The train has left the station, the guests have entered the house
i’m going up (mountain)
I go to school, I’m going out (private)
from “go”)
  behavior steal, snatch, steal… SV- & (O+)
SV- &EmNu
it steals money
businesses pay in dollars
  Thinking learn, understand, listen, speak… . SV- &{Rt Vt or RpVt or
RfVt} &VmVt-& O+
VtVt
SV- &
I study a foreign language, I learned a foreign language
language
learn to speak, learn to play (fiddle)
I finished my studies

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Vietnamese linking grammar model - 33

Type particle Classical feature Word Example Link Name Link Example
state verbs (Vs) 1. emotional psychology curious, trusting, doubting love, hate, sad, love, angry love
like, admire, loathe. .
VsN+
VsE+
SV- &{RlVt- or RlVt+}
trust friends
believe in the future
I’m sad, I’m so sad, I’m so embarrassed
  2.to exist still, yes, lost SV-&{Rt Vt -or RpVt- or
RfVt-}& O+
I have two thousand dong left, it has lost its lover
 
  3. metamorphosis to transform (to become), to germinate (to germinate), to arise, to change, SV- & {VsVs+}& O+ caterpillars turned into butterflies
  4. Consumption sick, tired, consumed, dead, lost Sv-&{VsN+}  
  5.reception eat, enjoy O+ enjoy the life of beating, eating bullets (very rarely used in Vt form)
  6. start, continue start, continue, stop, end, stop… SV-&{Rt Vt -or RpVt- or
RfVt-}&VsVt+
The boy has started to walk
  7. take a break stop, stop, stop, SV-& {Rt Vt -or RpVt- or RfVt-}& VsV+ it stopped arguing
  8.relationship is, do DT_LA- Cabbage is…
modal verb (Vm) 1.review should, should,, see, see SV-& (VmVt+ or VmVi) you should buy candy
  2.will intend, intend, dare, dare
decide
SV- & VmVt+ he decided to go to trade
  3. wish wish, dream, wish RsVm-
RlVm-
only wish
Looking forward
  4.depends suffer, be, suffer, have to endure VmVt
SV+
 
auxiliary verb (Vu) the verb is not capable of being a predicate in a sentence patriotic, nomadic, peaceful, family and refreshments NVu-
VmVu-
CVu-
VVu-
tranquilizers, nomads
was suspended
for refreshments
finished studying, done
adjective (Ap) Only the nature of the
things, can be accompanied by adverbs
only level
Only the properties
the object contains the value of
quantity
good, beautiful, bad, smart, enthusiastic SA- &ApNu+
ApAr+
beautiful girl
she is very beautiful
twenty meters deep
relative adjective (Ar) indicates dependence or interaction public, private, internal, external, private, private   shared, grandma
  comparative relationship equal, more, less, same, different… . ApAr- NAr-
ArN+
AreE
more beautiful, three hours more
more than ten people
different from, like
more rice day
  Relative adjectives are converted from nouns. see in noun   National Army
onomatopoeia (Ao) not independent as predicate jingle, creak, jingle… VA jingle bells
buckets and pots clatter
figurative adjective (Ai) not independent as predicate stooped, shriveled, sloppy, on the same axis, sloppy… VA
ApAi
bow down
demonstrative pronoun (Pd) there, there, that, that, that, this, now, now, then, then, so…   McN
McNt+
her teacher right now
preposition range (Es) about, above, below, in, out   NtEm+ &EmVt  
positional preposition (Ep)   at EpN in Hanoi, at school
Possessive Preposition (Eo)   of the EoNt+
EoPp+
teacher’s
mine
material preposition (Em)   equal Nt5Em-& EmNt6+
NgEm-& EmNt6+
VtEm-& EmNt6+
wooden table, silk clothes, corrugated iron roof
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