Vietnamese linking grammar model - 32



In the appendix we explain with examples the important links in Vietnamese. The division of words into subcategories is based on [16]. To further subdivide, into sub-categories, the thesis refers to the division in [16], and at the same time adds many sub-categories stemming from the need for association analysis and machine translation with annotated collection. The association of some simple words such as prepositions and prepositions detailed in the thesis will not be repeated in this appendix.

Follow up PhD thesis in  information technology  Vietnamese linking grammar model – 28 Particle 1

Follow up PhD thesis in information technology Vietnamese linking grammar model – 28

Particle type taxonomy Word example Linkname Link Example
Proper Noun (Np) 1.Name of person Person’s name: Giang Kieu Supernatural character name: Cuoi, Buddha,… SA+ NcN1- SV+ IO Beautiful Mai Lady Giang Kieu, Uncle Cuoi, Buddha Written by Nguyen Du give Mai
  2. Organization name Vietnam Fatherland Front, University of Science and Technology… NpEp- NNp- SV+   IO at Polytechnic University Vietnam Fatherland Front agency Polytechnic University achieved (city ) volume) Donate to Polytechnic University (book)
  3. Place name, celestial body Co Loa, Vietnam, Mars EpN SV+ DT_LA+ NNp in Co Loa on Mars Vietnam is (the heroic country) Vietnamese people
  4. Event name August Revolution, October Revolution NcN6- EsN NNp SV+ August Revolution before the October Revolution August Revolution events Successful August Revolution
  5. Name of work Tales of Kieu, the Bible NcN4- SV+ The Bible, The Tale of Kieu Successful August Revolution  
  6. Animal name Sphinx, Red Rabbit NcN2- SV+ DT_LA+ SA+ SHSH+ NNp Sphinx Red Rabbit eats (grass) The Sphinx is (legendary character) (horse) Bach Long (very) good Sphinx Egyptian sphinx Horse sausage bowl
  7. Object name Lada, Granite, Penicillin {PqN-} & {DpN-}& NcN4-   NNpNcN4- & NPd+ SV+ NuNp all the Ladas, the Lada, the Lada Lada car, Penicillin medicine that Lada (car) Lada runs (slowly) carLada

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Particle of type Classical feature Example from Link Name Link Example
Concrete Noun (Nt) 1 person grandpa, grandma, male, female, slave, pilot Supernatural character: witch water, ghost, god SH+, SH- {PqNt-} & {DpNt- or McNc- }&{NcN4-}& {NPd+} NN+ SV+ SA+ NtNp+ IO teacher’s father, word doctor all the students, all the students students, all students, all students, all students all three students factory workers operator (machine) (person) hard worker Vietnamese workers (I) give the baby (book)
  2. Animals animals: dogs, cats, whales birds: chickens, pigeons fish: carp, sesame, thu amphibians: frogs, frogs Reptile: snake, lizard Insects: ants, cockroaches molluscs: clams, abalone Crustaceans: shrimp, crab, crab Fictional animals: dragons, ghosts chicken microorganisms: viruses, bacteria bacteria, germs NtNp+ {PqN-} & {DpNt- or McNt- }& NcN2- & {NtPd+} SHSV+ NtAp+ EoNt+ Mickey Mouse all the cats, all the cats that cat rabbit ears, buffalo horns running chicken Kitty (castle) of the dragon
  3. Plants woody plants: iron, banyan shrubs: chrysanthemums, dandelions creeper: rose silk herbaceous plants: reed, sedge vegetables, tubers: turnips, gourds, squash {NcN3-}& {DpN-} SV+ NtAp+ NuNNtNt DT_LA+ O Paddy(s) vegetables are grown green rice oats squash, persimmon rope, banana, gourd cabbage is… . buy chrysanthemum
  4. Food, food in general seeds: beans, peanuts, sesame Food: rice, maize, potato… NuNt4- NtNt DT_LA+ OSA+ (two) pounds of beans beans, cassava roots, sesame plants rice is food buy corn This season, the rice is so green
  5. Utensils, items household items: table, chair, backpack, clock, electricity phone NcN4-& {DpN-}&{PqNt-} &{ NtPd+} CH+ NtEmSV+ OEsNt all those tables   wood table wooden table (wood) Solid wooden table. manufacture on the table
    tools and equipment: hammer, pliers, plow, harrow, pickaxe, shovel… {PqNt-}&{McNt-}&{NcNt-} McNt- EsNt- SV+ NtAp + three (pieces) pliers above the anvil under the hammer nail hammer big shovel
    spare parts and accessories: valves, faucets, springs NcN4-& {DpN-}&{PqNt-} &{ NtPd+} NN+ or NNMcNt- & NcN4- O- all those faucets   spring bed two chains buy springs
    toys: dolls, balloons NcNt SA+ SV+ Dolls, Balloons little doll play doll
    machinery: dynamo, pump musical instruments: lute, flute, drum, trumpet SA+ NcN4- & {DpN-}&{PqNt-} &{ NtPd+} O NuNt NtNp SV+ SA+ O- good pump all twenty pumps pump manufacturing lute, flute, lute Paranung drum, Piano the flock becomes (source of joy) magic guitar smash the guitar, make the drums, love it
      SH- NuNt- & SH+ the sound of the lute, the student guitar
    musical instruments: lute, flute, drum, trumpet NuNt NtNp SV+ SA+ O- lute, flute, lute Paranung drum, Piano the flock becomes (source of joy) magic guitar smash the guitar, make the drums, love it
      SH- NuNt- & SH+ the sound of the lute, the student guitar
    clothing: clothes, shoes {McNu}& NuNt O- two sets of clothes shopping clothes
    jewelry: rings, rings, NuNt- NN+ or NN- DT_LA+ O- diamond ring ring, ring box ring is (jewelry) ring sale
    other items: firewood, firewood, cigarettes, straw NaNt- SV+ a pile of straw, a bundle of burnt wood
  6. Substance Cosmetics: lipstick, chalk, medicine: Ky Ninh, Cao tiger bone SV+ O- DT_LA+ O- NtVu+ {PqNt-} & {DpN-}& NcN4- &{ NtPd+} powder allergen rub powder Cao tiger bone is (tonic) buy all the bottles of safe pregnancy medicine tall tiger bone
    Addictive substances: opium, heroin, etc. DT_LA+ SA+ Opium is (addictive) drug (very) harmful
    Materials: silk, cement, ink CH- EmNt+ silk shirt, cement floor, wooden table
    solids: wood, stone, iron, … . CH- EmNt+ wood table wooden
    liquid: beer, alcohol, kerosene, cooking oil {McNt- & NuN-} (four) liters of beer
    gas: gas, hydrogen, oxygen NuN- (10) kg of gas, (two) gas cylinders
    waste: feces, garbage. . NN manure bin
  7. Works paintings, photographs, works, plays NtAp The famous work, the play, the successful performance of the play
  8. Construction Components concrete, beams, beams. . SH+ O rafters Concrete mixer
  9. Construction works bridge, road, square, theater SH- girder
  10. Means of transport airplanes, cars SH- Automobile tires
  Weapons fighters, destroyers, tanks SH- tank chain
  Things in general stick, stick, skewers CH+ a stick of bamboo
  Part human body animal body plant parts part of an object part of the work SH+ Baby’s hand
  Universe: stars, planets   NtNp Venus
  Natural phenomena: storm, rain, thunder   NtAp NtAo SV+ Nc5Nt strong storm thunder rumble storm to storm
  Land: fields, gardens, hills   EpNt- DT_LA+ SA+ NcNt in the field The field is an asset large garden field, garden
  Areas with water: rivers, lakes   EpNt- DT_LA+ SA+ under the river river is . . . wide river
  Fantasy place: heaven damn, hell…   EpNt NN go to heaven in hell hell on earth
Type particle Classical feature Word Example Link Name Link Example
General Noun (Ng) Only things that differ in type but often come together as one
complete set of general meaning
houses, teachers and students, birds, people, army… NtNg
house story
hunting birds
Vietnamese people
Abstract nouns Concepts, terms, specialties Concepts are generalized in thinking: SHA+
Ho Chi Minh Thought
 physical science
Abstract Noun (Na)   disability, thought, science, life, facts NaNc August Revolution events
    positions: secretary, prime minister, president. . NaNu+ Captain’s ward
    sound: voice, voice SHA+ piano sound
    diseases: tuberculosis, cancer DT_LA+
TB is an infectious disease
    games: chess, chess O-
Chess is an interesting game
Classified Noun (Nc) Units of things exist into individual types person: person, name, uncle, guy, child, german . . NcN1+
two (horses)
    animals: child, female. . NcN2+ Cock
    Plants: cotton, flowers, seeds. . NcNt3+ rose
    object: thing, child, court, root, scroll, book… NcNt4+ book
    Phenomenon: sound, rays, lines, noses NcNt5+ lightning, knife point, ray of hope
    concept: life, events, feelings, emotions NcNt6+
August Revolution
    rank NcMc+ Thursday
  Units of things of the same type exist as a set swarm, flock, math, group, column (smoke) column (smoke), set, stack, grasp, sip … NcNt+ flock of birds, group of workers
Unit Noun (Nu) Precise scientific measurement kg, ha, weight, ram… McNu-&{NuNt4} two kilograms of rice
  Folk measurement ca, barrel, fight, butter, car McNu-&NuNt4+ three pounds of squash
  Time herd McN- three days
  Currency dime, copper, coins, dollars McN- three dimes, two dollars
  Administrative organization village, ward, district, district, province, city, factory, club NaNu-
Captain’s ward
factory workers
built ward
contribute to the ward
  Frequency times, sessions, batches, owls, weeks (incense) NuV+
session, punch

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Date published: 01/11/2021

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