IDENTIFYING DIRECT ASKING ACTIONS AND INDIRECT ASKING ACTIONS AT THE LEARNING AGENCY – MEANINGS – LEARNING
2. 1. SPEAKING ACTION OVERVIEW
1.1.1.The concept of speaking action
Humans create PNs that are expressed in words, phrases, and syntax, and perform activities with those PNs themselves. That is the speaking contract (speech act), including three types:
1. Locutionary acts is a selection operation so as to create a meaningful NN expression as a basis for PN or speech-making activity is an activity using NN elements at phonetic, word and word levels. vocabulary, grammar, on the basis of selecting and combining them, to create NN expressions with sufficient meaning. For example, a woman who speaks a lisp, doesn’t have enough vocabulary, or doesn’t know a foreign language, or is unable to create a language that makes other people understand… then that person has not been able to perform the language-generating contract.
2. The illocutionary acts (in words; the language) is the purpose and function of the speaker’s thoughts when performing the act of creating the language. No one can create enough and true PNs without a GT purpose and without performing a function at all. The effect of this activity was called by Cao Xuan Hao the illocutionary force of PN .
3. Perlocutionary acts (borrowing words; by words; cross-linguistics) is to make speech-generating activities, middle-language activities to achieve an effect according to the intention of the speaker and create a corresponding linguistic response. in the recipient.
The above activities are different from the central target. For example, the top three activities represent a central goal that to know information, we have the type of information system. Or a speech-generating activity can create different central target words. For example, an activity creates a question language but can have two middle goals: (1) to collect unknown information; (2) to threaten…
2. 1.1.2. The concept of the act of asking (OS)
In GT, there are many speech purposes such as: presentation, invitation, greeting, clarification, question…. When implementing the OS, we not only try to create PNHs containing words and phrases in certain syntactic structures used to ask questions, but also at the same time implement the OS with the questions themselves. It’s OS (ask acts), there are three types
1. The locutionary acts is the choice for creating the query NN expression with enough meaning as the basis for PNH. Those are the NN elements at the phonetic, lexical, and grammatical levels that create the NN expression that asks, has enough meaning, and makes the listeners in the context understand and recognize the OS.
2. Acts of the middle language used to ask (illocutionary acts) is the purpose of asking and the function of asking in the mind of the speaker when performing the act of creating an interrogative language.
3. Verbal activity has HT questions but not to ask, Activity creates language used to ask, middle language activities must achieve an effect according to the speaker’s intention.
18.104.22.168. Conditions for the implementation of the OS
1. Context condition (felicity condition): belongs to the appropriate situation with the implementation of the OS intended by the questioner; and listener awareness.
2. General conditions: is the condition that GT participants can understand each other and are aware of their contract.
3. Condition on ND (content condition): both sides towards the ND (explicit or implicit) of PNH, must talk about a single fact of reality, with elements Homogeneous circumstances are linked together by identical relations and are placed in the same frame of reference in space and time. This is the condition for the identity of the question statement ND and the important criterion for locating and identifying the operating system in the speaking event. For information systems, with obvious meaning, the questioner when placing the PNH has determined himself and placed the respondent in a certain space and time reference system, locating the ND elements in a certain coordinate. .
Respondents are forced to accept all elements of ND in that condition to ensure that the information they provide is correct with the information that the questioner needs, then that is the most consistent relationship between information system, direct word. On the contrary, if the respondent does not respond to the ND factors in those coordinates, does not respond to the information that the questioner needs and the situation is no longer unique, it has been skewed in many directions according to the subject. According to the opinion of the questioner and the respondent, that is the relationship that is both consistent and inconsistent between the questioner and the respondent, between the communication system, and the indirect answer.
The inconsistency between the questioner and the respondent is also reflected in different situations such as: first, the respondent deflects the questioner’s question due to not properly understanding the main point of the message or because he does not fully understand the question. notification. Second, the respondent in the perception understood the ND’s announcement but deliberately answered in a wrong direction to aim at their other intentions (reject, challenge, cause trouble…). Third, the target of the answering PN at the respondent is not consistent with the ND on the surface of the PNH. The response, although deviating from the questioner (unanimous), but aimed at the correct source of the source (unified), consistent between the respondent and the indirect target of the PNH.
4. Preparatory conditions: for an OS, there must be a clear enough difference compared to other contracts, for example, other promises warn. When promising something, there are two preparatory conditions: the thing will not happen by itself; the event is promised towards a beneficial effect for the listener. Preparatory Conditional Warning: the speaker does not know clearly whether the listener here knows that the event will happen or not; The speaker here is thinking about what will happen, so there is a warning contract for the listener.
So what are the preparation conditions of the OS? If it is an information system: then the questioner does not know the information of what he is asking; the questioner knows that he would not have known the information if he had not asked; the questioner expects that the respondent will provide that information to him/her when asked; The questioner believes that the listener has the capacity to perform the contract. If it is a traffic control: then the questioner already knows the information of what he is asking; the questioner knows that he or she will borrow the OS to perform another activity or to provide something different with certain intentions; the questioner does not need that information on the surface of the PNH; the questioner knows that he borrowed that information to provide another information to the interlocutor and the interlocutor would not know if he did not ask; the questioner expects that the respondent will provide that information to him/her when asked; OSGT receives unknown information in the following way: using HT to ask, but not to receive new information, asking is just a condition that listeners rely on to understand and follow another goal, another request.
5. Sincerity condition: for the OS, the person asking sincerely takes the initiative to implement the OS with the real desire to get that information. On the contrary, in the case of traffic management, the questioner does not really actively implement the operating system with the desire to really have that information, but wants to be met with another information.
6. Essential condition: the speaker intends to force the listener to provide information or to comply with his intention. The base condition combines with the specifics of what is required in the PNH ND, the context and the speaker’s intention to make a particular OS properly implemented on both sides. [36; 76; 194]
2. 1.1.4. Speech event concept
According to the theory of discourse analysis: a range of NNs, mainly speech NNs, larger than a sentence, usually a number of PNs. The set of women is created a social situation consisting of many participants, having a type of social relationship, in a certain GT environment, with certain specific goals, called a speech event. Each speech event is a separate case of using NN to communicate, or the activities of the participants, to influence each other through NN in some conventional way, to achieve a certain purpose. . They are governed by the norms and rules of the use of NN, which vary by NN communities. The set of PNs is created in a kind of social situation in the transactional environment, including many people in the role of buyers and sellers, and they have a type of social relationship that is the MB’s interests linked together, in an environment. The school is the place where the MB negotiation takes place (it can be a market place, a supermarket, wherever the MB event takes place…), with a specific goal called a GTMB speech event.
2.1.2. Classify HĐH
2. 1.2. 1. Based on topic criteria
Depending on the topic, there are countless OSes, as they depend on the meaning of the descriptive ND the questioner wants to refer to. For example, ask for product name, price, quality, etc.
2. 1.2.2. Based on general functional criteria
OS is divided into two main types: OS to perform the function knows what you need to know, don’t know; OS to perform the contract such as declaration, order…
2. 1.2. 3. Based on morphological and structural criteria
OS with signs of HT contains PTH; OS has no signs of HT not PTH.
2. 1.2. 4. Based on GT . purpose criteria
Based on this criterion, OS consists of two types: OS with the purpose of asking, to know new information; The OS is not used to ask questions, but to borrow the OS to perform the operating system.
2. 1.2.5.Based on direct nature criteria
OS is aimed directly at the listener, not through an intermediary;
The OS is not intended to ask the listener directly, but to ask indirectly through an intermediary.
22.214.171.124. Based on the combination of morphological structure-purpose GT-face-to-face nature
OS is represented by PNH and OS is not represented by PNH.
a. OS is contained with PNH
The OS is contained using PNH, which consists of two primary subcategories, namely:
* OS is contained with PNH, which contains PTYPE
* OS is contained using PNH, not PTYPE
a1. Further dividing the OS contained by PNH, which contains PTH, two quadratic subtypes:
– The information system containing the genuine PNH is asked directly, represented by the PN containing the PTH, for the purpose of knowing the unknown information. That is, as long as there is a direct relationship between structural form – purpose GT – direct questioning nature, then we have a PN containing PTH, asking straight to the point of need to know, also known as legitimate PNH, used to ask directly, there is a PTH containing the information system.
– The OSGT contains an unofficial PNH license with two different purposes, so we continue to divide the OSGT into two sub-categories of level 3:
+ The operating system through the intermediary (intermediate OS) is represented by the official PNH, which contains the PTH but is not the information system, but must go through an intermediary to receive unknown information (ask another person, for example, the first person asks the second person to send a message to the third person, but the first person either does not like to ask directly or does not have the conditions to meet …) to carry out traffic communication, the purpose is to know the information. unknown or known. The NTP contains an unofficial PNH, because it is an intermediary, does not ask directly – contains PTH, (the essence of the NTP is contained with a legitimate PNH through an intermediary)
+ The operating system to indirectly other activities (OSE OS) is represented by a non-authentic PNH, containing PTH but mediated by the OS to notify another OS, whose purpose is to perform another OS (not the operating system). , for knowing the information); turn the operating system into an indirect one to perform other activities, not for the purpose of knowing the unknown information. The operating system operating system is contained with the non-legitimate PNH, not legitimate because it is in the problem of turning the operating system into an intermediary to perform other activities – containing the PTH and not containing the purpose of need to know but for other purposes, to perform the operating activities such as: Ask to confirm, ask to promise…
a2. We further divide the second tier 1 subcategory – OS contained using PNH, but not PTH – also into two quadratic subcategories, namely:
– OSTT contains genuine PNH license, no PTH
Information system contains genuine PNH, asked directly, with PNH but does not contain PTH, combines intonation, context, purpose to know the unknown
– OSGT containing unofficial PNH license, without PTH with two different purposes, should be further divided into two sub-categories of level 3:
+ The World Trade Organization (OS through an indirect intermediary), no PTH, has a goal to know
+THDTHĐK (to indirectly other activities), no PTH, no destination to know.
b. OS is represented by not using PNH
In this group, since OSs are contained by not using PNH, they of course do not contain PTH and cannot be OSTs. So mainly there is only type of OSGT.
Traffic management without PNH is also mainly divided into two sub-categories:
-Operations through indirect intermediaries
– OSDTHĐK (OS to indirectly other activities)
We summarize the OS classification combining the above three criteria which is summarized by the following classification table 2.1:
Table 2. 1
|OS is contained with PNH||OS is contained with a PNH that contains a PTH||OSTT: Contains with genuine PNH (with PTH and purpose to know)|
|OSGT: Contained with an unauthenticated PNH that contains a PTH||NTPTG (OS through indirect intermediaries): Contained by unofficial PNH in the intermediary issue, without asking directly, containing PTH and with a need to know purpose (actually a legitimate PNH through an intermediary)|
|The OS is not legit because it turns the OS into an intermediary to perform other activities, contains PTH and has no purpose to know.|
|OS contained with PNH does not contain PTH||OSTT : Contains with genuine PNH (does not contain PTH and has a need to know purpose)||NTPTG (OS through indirect intermediaries): Contained by unofficial PNH in the intermediary issue, do not ask directly, contains PTH and has a need to know purpose (actually a legitimate PNH through an intermediary)|
|OSGT:Contained with an unofficial PNH that does not contain a PTH||The OS is not legitimate because it turns the OS into an intermediary to perform other activities, does not contain PTH and has no purpose to know.|
|OS is not contained with PNH||Mainly OSGT||NTPTG (OS through indirect intermediaries): Contained by unofficial PNH in the intermediary issue, do not ask directly, do not contain PTH and have a need to know purpose (actually a legitimate PNH through an intermediary)|
|The OS is not legitimate because it turns the OS into an intermediary to perform other activities, does not contain PTH and has no purpose to know.|
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