Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 23

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Perhaps this is also explained by non-NND factors, especially the psychological factor of Vietnamese people. The starting point is still the extreme nature (one side fully respects and the other side is most offended) of the “unique” “sacred” “doesn’t want to share”… As for the explanation from the NN aspect, they I think it’s because the translation process of sociology is too vivid and complicated, and due to the pressure of the habit of using language, accompanied by the arbitrary nature of language that occurs in a crisscrossing manner.

Especially in cases where the speaker intentionally violates the principle of address for utilitarian purposes. These two words of kinship are pushed to a very high position, but they have low social status and narrow scope of activities. But in GTMB, they have a relatively low frequency, governed by the principle of rights, the principle of lively habits in MB of Vietnamese people. Consider the words “brother” “sister” “em” “brother” “sister” “em”: “blood related”, “not directly related”, “same generation” and opposite in meaning “gender” calculation, “high-low-hierarchical relationship in the same generation” a/ Distinguish:

“Brother 1”: is a word to refer to a son of the same generation in the family, in the family, but in the upper class (brother, cousin, brother-in-law), using both calling and addressing (brother, me, me).

“brother 2”: is a word to address or call a man who may be younger than him with respectful and polite nuances (brother/me, sister).

“brother 3”: is a word used to call a man of the same age or older as his brother with respectful and polite nuances (brother/me, brother).

“brother 4”: is a word used for both addressing and calling in male and female relationships (marriage, love relationships, friendship relationships…) in an intimate way (brother/me, sister).

“brother 5”: is a word used to call a man of the next generation in relation to him, but older than himself with a respectful nuance (brother/me, sister).

b/ Distinguish:

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“sister 1”: is a word for a female of the same generation in the family, in the upper family (sister, cousin, sister-in-law), can be used both calling and addressing (sister / sister, me).

“sister 2”: is a word to address or call a woman who may be younger than herself with respectful and polite nuances (sister / me, brother).

“sister 3”: is a word used to call a woman of the same age or older as her sister with respectful and polite nuances (sister / me, brother).

“sister 4”: is a word used for both addressing and calling in male-female relationships, friendship relationships…in an intimate way (sister/me, sister).

“sister 5”: is a word used to call a woman of the next generation in relation to her, but older than herself with respectful nuances (sister/me, brother). .

c/ Distinguish:

“Brother 1”: is a word indicating a person of the same generation in the family, in the last name, in the lower row (brother, cousin, sister-in-law), can be used both to call and address (brother/sister).

“em2”: is a word used to call a young person who is worthy of his or her younger brother’s role in an intimate way (e.g. brother/sister).

“em 3”: is a word to address someone older than you with respectful and polite nuances (em/brother, sister, aunt).

“em 4”: is a word used for both pronouncing and calling in marital relationships, love relationships, and intimate friendships.

d/ Comment: in the noun system indicating kinship, the three words “brother” “sister” “em” are words with relatively high social character. Perhaps it comes from the meaning of having a “blood relationship” with a close and intimate expression, and a “hierarchical relationship” to respect and ensure the principle of politeness and principle. “professing humility – honoring”, having a very moderate “co-generational” relationship, not too far apart in terms of status, just enough to keep a moderate distance, just enough to keep a neutral, non-elevating nuance. Positions going up too high don’t push them too low, so their use completely satisfies the ideal conditions for the principle of saving face, in GTXH. All of the above conditions are even more ideal in the contract of sale and purchase.

They are both a necessary and a sufficient condition for ensuring the principle of interests of both parties “agree to buy and sell”.

Another thing is that, if this TXH is used in the right role of GT, then they have absolutely no negative expressive nuances, most of the cases, they have a positive nuance, although not bold (due to commonality and many). compared to other TSHs. Considering the words “child” “grandchild” “Children” “grandchildren” have in common: “blood related”, “directly related”, “belonging to the next generation” a/ Distinguish:

“son 1”: is the role of the person of the next generation who has a relationship with the person who was directly born, can use both calling and pronouncing (child/father, mother).

“Children 2”: is a word to call young people who are considered to be their descendants with intimate nuances (son/grandpa, grandma, uncle, aunt, uncle, aunt, uncle, aunt…).

“Children 3”: is the word that users use to address people who are worthy of their grandparents and uncles with intimate nuances (son/grandparents, grandparents, uncles, aunts, uncles, aunts, uncles, aunts, etc.) .

In the case of adopted children, social status is expressed in the sense of “child 2” and “child 3”, the same bold expression as in “child 1” (because parents have merit in bringing up) b/ Distinguishing:

“grandchild 1”: is a role belonging to the next generation, not a child, having a relationship with the previous generation, using both calling and pronouns (grandchild/grandchild, grandmother, uncle, aunt, uncle, aunt, uncle, auntie…).

“grandchild 2”: is a word to call a young person who is considered to be his or her grandchild with intimate nuances (grandchild/grandchild, grandma, uncle, aunt, uncle, aunt, uncle, aunt…).

“grandchild 3”: is the word that users use to address people who are worthy of their grandparents, fathers and uncles (grandchildren/grandchildren, grandmothers, uncles, aunts, uncles, aunts, uncles, aunts…).

c/ Comment: Social relations refer to kinship relations of “son” and “grandchild” with relatively high social character, with a very wide range of activities, “pronounced” character, suitable for “professed” roles. Perhaps because it comes from the meaning that is both “blood related” with intimate nuances and “belonging to the next generation” meaning, ensuring the principle of “honoring”. At the same time, they often have the meaning of “lower generation”, so they can ensure the right of the right to traffic. If used correctly GT roles, they do not have negative expressive shades.

4.5. Summary table of kinship words in business communication The following is a summary table 4.4, presented as a general picture of the transformation and different frequencies of social names indicating kinship relations, not only transformed into a kinship society within the family but also into a kinship society outside the society in all fields of activity, (especially in the community in general, in particular, in all three dialect regions: Northern, Central, South.

Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 23 383 1

Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 23 383 2

Diagram 4.4


4.6.1.Why in MB, kinship social status is used a lot? Each pair of GT roles has its own way of addressing sensitive, delicate, and very subtle hierarchies…, so choosing the appropriate social status (age positioning, social status …) is necessary. set. Vietnamese people have a habit of being respectful, and it is difficult to adapt to a neutral tone of voice. Therefore, in the current era, the era of international economic integration, the issue of standards of address – more than ever – is of high urgency. Traditional:

Family community, clan community – the center of gathering families, the support of the village, and the village community – the main organizational structure that gathers families and clans. All three of the above organizations were created, based on two main bases: blood relation and resident relationship (neighborhood relationship), closeness on a piece of land. For the wet-rice agricultural life, for survival, it forces everyone in the community to unite and love like a family and clan, especially that community is confined within a small framework behind the village’s bamboo ramparts. . The strongest mark in Vietnamese society is emotional, the first is family love with blood relations. Complicated social relations, along with different GT purposes, Vietnamese people “expand”, “relatively” gradually “relate” GT objects by using social relations of kinship to address people who have no kinship relationship. (the stranger). Modern: Societies have an important role, good traditions, heavy on ancestral affection. TXH is used in many fields, but MB activities are still the place where GT is most exciting, many GT purposes, most GT situations.

4.6.2.Why in buying and selling, the pronouns are used a lot, used little, not used? Due to traditions, habits, and styles (explained later). Explained by the principles: the principle of hierarchical (upper-down), (high-low), (heavy-light), (big-small), (before-after) ensure the rule of “professing humility” respect”.

(1) Blood relation: more kinship than no relative, showing “coughing” with people who are not related by blood, for example: “aunt”, “uncle”. .

(2) Generation class: first birth is more important than later, older is older than younger. In MB, people often call younger people with bigger roles, for example: brother, sister, uncle… (3) Distinguishing relationship: respecting the inner side more than the maternal side, the bride-in-law more than the “guest son-in-law”. For example, they prefer to say “grandmother”, “aunt”, “uncle”, “aunt” rather than “grandmother”, “aunt”, “uncle” (4) Gender relationship: prefer male over female. The consequence of this principle is that the inner side is more important than the maternal side, so people prefer to say “aunt” “uncle” “uncle” “aunt” rather than “uncle” “aunt”… (5) Near and far relationship: respect relatives. close relatives, having blood relations, close blood relatives than distant relatives, having distant blood relations. As a consequence of this principle, it is preferable to say that TXH is only related to close relatives: “aunt”, “aunt”, “uncle” rather than “uncle”” (6) Direct relationship: more related to the same bloodline. different bloodline. The consequence of this principle is that it is preferable to say “aunt”, “uncle”, “uncle”, “aunt” rather than “uncle” “aunt”,”aunt” (7) Relationship level: the upper level is more important than the lower one. The consequence of this principle is that it is preferable to chant kinship words indicating the position in the upper level: “grandpa”, “uncle”, “brother”, “sister” (8) Degree of emotional relationship: high emotional importance Lighter, heavier body.

(9) Style, emotional nature: in GTMB, Vietnamese people prefer the informal and popular style rather than the formal, dignified, and ritual style.

(10) Relationship inside and outside: heavy affection in the family, then go out into society.

(11) High-low, big-small: weight is greater than small (12) In the market environment, there is often a situation of “challenging”, “bargaining” that is not suitable for men’s personalities, combined with the role of GTMB In the market area, women account for many times more than men, so the social distribution for men is less than that of women.

(13) “Mr” society is often used in the right role and is popular, while “he” society with a solemn and ceremonial character often exists at a very high rate, appearing in big meetings, events. non-popular MB conversation.

(14) Respect the elderly, but do not give the impression that the interlocutor is old, with a mentality that does not suggest “near the earth, far from the sky”, so do not call “co”, “great-grandfather” and even more do not call “ke” , “small”. Because the elderly also have limited mobility, poor GT ability, the ability to GT in the market is even rarer. In fact, there is no possibility of addressing between GT people 5-6 generations apart, because of the limited lifespan in humans. (15) In GTMB, the social status of “father”, “mother”, and mother are often opposite at two extremes. Perhaps, because in the Vietnamese mind, the relationship and affection between mother and child and father and son are the most sacred and noble. When using these words, the divine at the positive pole turns into the highest positivity. On the contrary, when intentionally offending each other, perhaps the most sacred offense is to put the interlocutor in the most uncomfortable position,and this divinity at the cathode turns into a peak negativity. The social “mother”, “mama”, “teacher”, “dad” “dad”… in MB are more purposeful, highly utilitarian, or at the extreme, or respectful, or insulting.

(16) In GT in general, GTMB in particular, the “wife” and “husband” social relations are not used by Vietnamese people, because this is a special relationship that is only limited to two people, and the “ownership” relationship of each other, cannot freely give to anyone, there is no need to make such an unscrupulous claim among the community. Another reason is that there is no blood relation between the two people, only marriage. The consequence of this principle has led to two societies that are not borrowed by the Vietnamese as “strawberry”, “in-law” except for the case of intentional use by the GT people. Perhaps due to the complicated cross-section of the relationship between daughter-in-law and husband’s family, son-in-law and wife’s family, Vietnamese people do not want to touch the complexity of that relationship?

We summarize the above reasons with the following diagram 4.5:

Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 23 383 3

Diagram 4.5


1. Research on the vocative word of the act of asking in  has proved the close relationship between the choice of the vocative word and the linguistic element of the CTLC, which has clearly defined the process of transforming implicit meanings, creating communication effectiveness.

2. With delicate and polite requirements in buying and selling, addressing words, especially kinship words, are mobilized and made the most of as raw materials, and are indispensable activators belonging to the weak. The language element of CTLC creates implicit meaning and creates high efficiency in communication, especially in transactional value.

3. In the Vietnamese sociological system, the class of words derived from kinship nouns really plays an important role in the scope of sales and purchases, contributing to the system of specialized personal pronouns.

4. At the level of clans and families, the word kinship mainly works with the original meaning, strictly adhering to the hierarchical principle of the clan and family system in a stable manner. As for the scope of trading, the kinship society not only adheres to these principles, but mainly develops in the sense of derivative, provisional, and pragmatism.

The use of social status in the ritual is different from the usual ritual in that there is a greater improvement in freedom and equal rights, for example, discrimination in terms of age, position, and occupation does not have much impact on gender identity. communication, or the seller, even though he is older, can still greet the buyer first. Dominated by the principle of interest, a seller or a buyer can call themselves “relatives” to strangers.

5. In any case, the array of pronouns in the GTMB is still an issue that needs to be paid attention and researched by the state community. At the same time, researchers need to apply them to the practice of teaching students in high school and in MB buying and selling textbooks in the fields of commerce, economics, sales management, etc.



5.1.1. The role of national cultural characteristics (ethnic culture)

It was not until recently that the world realized the importance of cultural identity, because it takes thousands of years to acquire a culture’s own identity. The number of countries in the world is many, but the number of countries with distinct and outstanding cultures is not much. It is no coincidence that Vietnam is one of the few countries in Asia with a distinct cultural identity that belongs to the typical form.

In the trend of renewal and integration of the country, the issue of identity, cultural identity, national language identity has never been so concerned as now. From the perspective of a researcher of Vietnamese linguistics, we pay special attention to the relationship between Vietnamese language and ethnic culture. The starting point of the problem is to find the distinctive features of the ND, then, from the ND, to find the distinctive feature of the HT, using the HT to solve the ND, is the tendency to find ND, the semantics of the HT. NN not only performs the function of thinking and thinking, but also an effective tool for the function of storage. Thanks to this function, the state not only conveys information but also reflects and preserves the reality outside the country, which is closely related to the lifestyle, customs and practices… of each community. On the other hand, the communication between people of the same or different ethnic groups is most effective only when there is a common understanding in both roles.With the need for globalization in the fields of politics, economics, trade… there have been many cases of incomplete understanding or misunderstanding of each other for many reasons. But among them, one reason that cannot be ignored is the lack of necessary knowledge of historical, cultural and social factors to understand YNH. The specificity of folklore is expressed through the YNH of different speech acts in different languages.

In order to make good use of a language, people must not only grasp the linguistic elements: problems of sound, writing, vocabulary, syntax, etc. elements of history, culture, socio-cultural material/intangible (about lifestyles, habits, customs, morals. On the contrary, as a factor of ethnic culture, language is considered in two directions: “inward” – then, state plays the role of the unifying factor of the nation; ; “outward” – then state is a sign. the basic sign that divides a nation [181] The research direction of this issue is “outward”.

In GTMB, Vietnamese people often use OS with YNHNH with very distinct cultural characteristics.

5.1.2. Research status of the problem

The issue of cultural relations – language – national thinking helps us to know W.

V. Humbold with the theory of language and national soul, known to E. Sapir, B. Whorf with the theory of NN relativity and the cognitive linguistics movement in the last decades of the world. 20th century. In Vietnam, the issue of ethnic cultural identity from an interdisciplinary perspective has received a lot of attention from Vietnamese linguists: Dao Duy Anh; Cao Xuan Hao; Do Huu Chau; Tran Ngoc Them; Trinh Sam; Tran Thi Ngoc Lang; Nguyen Dinh Chu; Nguyen Duc Dan; Nguyen Lai; Nguyen Duc Ton; Nguyen The Lich; Nguyen Minh Thuyet; Nguyen Van Chien; Ho Le; Ly Toan Thang; Hoang Thi Chau; Hoang Cao Cuong; Do Thi Kim Lien; Bui Manh Hung; Bui Thi Minh Yen; Bui Khanh The, Nguyen Thi Tuyet Ngan, Nguyen Phu Phong, Nguyen Thi Li Kha, Nguyen Van Quang, Hoang Anh Thi, Truong Thi Diem, Le Thanh Kim… All of their works discuss directly or indirectly with VHDT problems,But in front of a vast and complex issue that certainly cannot be confirmed, this is the final say.

5.1.3. Research purposes

We want to contribute to overcome some of the difficulties of “understanding each other” in GT, trying to explain the way Vietnamese people speak and think when doing business.

Next, we prove the relationship between VHDT- CTLC features. It is the characteristics of folklore with “way of thinking,” “how to do” that has created the LC for women containing speaking activities. On the contrary, it is the traditional culture that also affects and creates the characteristics of ethnic culture in agriculture in general and in YNH NH in particular.

5.1.4. The relationship between national cultural characteristics and CTLC

The starting point of the characteristics of ethnic culture in agriculture in general and modern culture with YNH NH in particular, is the very “choice” of each ethnic community. We need to extract the selection types to find out the specific cultural identity of a language. Distribution of selection patterns are important factors in CTLC.

In GTMB, the distribution of the types of Vietnamese language selection comes from the characteristics of ethnic culture, so that it is consistent with the strategy of GT, the purpose of GT is very important. For example (107), M: Why do you look so light when you weigh yourself? B: God, are you sad? 10 kg rice bag fashion is less!; M: Those more than 10 kg? Don’t have a refund? (The buyer implied to blame the seller for being underweight, by choosing a method of translation. The word “light”, which originally means: “Weighing less than normal or compared to the weight of another object, contrary to with heavy”; “Having intensity, weak impact, or using little force, not strong”[127]. But in the context of (107), it forces us to understand through the meaning that the buyer tells the seller that was underweight compared to the amount, the goods requested by the buyer.The seller immediately has a PN that refutes the buyer’s implication by using other metaphors and meanings. And “sad” means the original meaning: “Having a negative mood of the person who is having a painful or unpleasant situation” “There is an uncomfortable feeling in the body, wanting to have some other gesture activity.” . But here, the word “sad” is used in the sense of transition on the basis of the above two meanings:

1. Based on the meaning “something is not satisfactory”, is because the seller thinks that the buyer makes incorrect comments about his contract, which means that the buyer is experiencing something unsatisfactory, something that is not satisfactory. it has nothing to do with me 2. Based on the meaning “want to have some other gesture contract”, because the seller thinks he is unjust and thinks that the buyer has the contract to blame that injustice on me…

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