Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 16

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The decoding structure is always through the “subjective lens” [100] of the receiver. So in communication, decoding is not always easy: the coder creates the code structure with this HT, but the decoder understands it with another HT mechanism; or the decoder based on that HT mechanism of the coder, but what is reported is always more than the HT of what is said on the PN surface, so the decoder chooses this interpretation without choosing the other way. understand differently to respond. As a result, the dialogues do not coincide in terms of understanding and responding to information.

The decoding structure of the system of the communication system explains in two directions: deductive, inductive and according to the laws of the cognitive process going from the system of the concrete to the interpretation of the abstract and vice versa.

f4. The structure of choice for decoding about the PN content containing the PN The speech derived from the language is not a signal that is always stable and corresponds to itself, but actually they are always in dynamic position, changing according to the context, So in communication, we always use the decoding structure for both HT and ND, especially in terms of ND. The decoding process here is essentially the process of reconstructing the semantic ND structure through the subjective lens of the receiver. The structure of decoding about the ND is based on the structure of the HT, but develops more widely than the structure of the HT, through the dynamic perception of the recipient in combination with the pressure factor outside the NN.

At this time, the HT structure is not simply because of the NN itself, the HT structure is just a means of prompting the decoding structure to create a new ND structure. It has the role of having to, in turn, also perform the operation of selecting the most appropriate meanings, ND, and the speaker’s intention to create a new response. The decoding structure of ND in CTLC of PN containing OSGT is not immediately expressed on the structure of the utterance surface.

It is explained in the relationship between the particular and the general, especially in this structure we pay attention to the “maximum potentiality and self-regulation” [100] of individual elements in service of the common, According to a common mechanism, on a common background, it can be deciphered. It must also be placed in close relationship with the HT.

To understand the mechanism of decoding implicit functions is not easy, listeners must know how to combine the particular and the common, because semantics is really under pressure from many linguistic and non-linguistic sides. The decoding structure of ND is more influenced by the subjective nature of the receiver. So, sometimes the coder speaks for this purpose, the decoder thinks another, or decodes according to a hidden mechanism with many dimensions and diversity. This is really difficult for us to study and explain the problem exactly because the reality and the structure of their meanings are so diverse and colorful. It also has to be explained from an inductive perspective through the systematicity of many NN domains.

Systematicity is not actually the encoding or decoding structure itself, but it contributes to controlling and regulating the decoding process, making the meaning-making mechanism, especially the new, temporary meaning of the decoding process. the code becomes more dynamic. Decoding structure through systematicity creates extremely diverse sets and new meaning structures. They also reflect new perceptions according to the explanatory mechanism, in two dimensions, both deductive and inductive, and followed by a cognitive level: from concrete to abstract, from sentiment to rationality.

Statements containing the act of asking questions in business communication in Vietnamese - 16 369

2.4. INTRODUCTION QUESTIONS OF COMMUNICATION OF PURCHASE

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In order to have a more specific view of the act of asking, we study two more issues: the utterance that opens the dialogue and a number of indirect questioning actions specific to the Vietnamese people’s buying and selling communication .

2.4.1.Analytical data sources

Through surveying 1000 MB conversations in Vietnamese, we found that there are 6729 PN containing OS /12540 total sentence types, accounting for 53.66%. Thus, through the statistical results, we found that PNH containing OS is used with the highest rate. Among 6729 OS-containing PNs, we found 2578 OS-containing PNs in the opening dialogue with the function of initiating the conversation and the response function after the opening dialogues of the GTMB conversation, accounting for 38, 31 %. That said, the important role of the PN contains the OS that has the function of initiating the conversation and responding to the opening dialogue.

2.4.2. Why is the PN asking at the beginning of a buying and selling conversation used a lot?

Why do people often use PNH when MB? What role does it play? Why use them to introduce the topic of MB discourse? When setting a PN containing OS for the subject on a certain issue, there are usually two reasons: the questioner is not knowledgeable about the subject matter; the questioner is interested in “benefits”, “benefits”, “goals” that he wants to achieve. Listeners answer questions directly or indirectly by PNH; or probe to grasp the goal, the “interest” that the questioner wants to achieve. Therefore, the response dialogue can be at different levels depending on the conversational cooperation, attitude, and interest in the topic of discourse. Trafficking activities in Vietnam mainly still take place in markets, activities are very diverse, most notably GT with the word “debating” about price and quality. The style and habits of MB in the market are not strict price regulations:the seller has the right to “challenge”, the buyer has the right to “bargain”; If the seller does not “challenge”, the buyer still keeps the habit of “paying the price”….

The opening dialogue plays the role of “pushing”, “ritualizing”, “socializing”. The speaker proposes the topic, both playing the role of probing interest, attitude, and information about goods, prices, and preferences, as well as having an exploration strategy to carry out the MB process so as to achieve the goal. . Introductory dialogue also has the task of playing the role of establishing relationships, approaching, taking advantage of the other’s feelings, exploring topics such as: inviting, greeting, introducing, … With the above role, PNH uses more convenient way to enter GTMB conversation. 2.4.3. Some aspects of PNH in the opening dialogue

2.4.3.1. Conditions for using the OS-containing utterance in the opening paragraph a/ Objective conditions: when meeting familiar or strange customers approaching the goods; or buyers have attitudes, gestures … want to buy; or want to make an offer; … b/ Subjective condition is a condition for turning a question dialogue with the function of opening the conversation into a discourse topic and raising it to an event MB. This condition also depends on the response, interest and cooperation of the respondent. Example (45) follows: M: Hey, why was the noodle soup you sold to her the other day so boring? (Buyers ask to scold capital to buy cheap); B: How do you get bored? So will you make up for it today? (And the seller who wants to keep the customer and make the sale should ask to encourage the buyer. Assuming the seller at (45) just ignores it, there is no response, it cannot become a topic. discourse,and MB voice call will not be able to take place.)

2.4.3.2. Structure in terms of content of the opening question We consider more the content structure of the opening question, (because the structure of the text has been carefully considered in Sections 2.2.1 and 2.3.1), including: Who asked – asked who – asked about what – the purpose of the question – how to ask. Example (46): B: Did you buy eggs? Did you see if the eggs were fresh today?; M: Is it really fresh? Or are you just advertising? The other day I bought 10 nearly half broken ones! The example includes a pair of dialogues with two turns: the first turn of the semiconductor seller enters the conversation, including 2 interrogative dialogues with the function of introducing the topic: The seller asks the introduction (who asks) – Asks the target audience. purchase is a person older than himself;

The seller asked two questions: asked the other party whether to buy goods; Ask the other party’s comments about the item you have (ask what’s the problem). (The first dialogue is both exploring whether the other party wants to buy, establishing a relationship between the two parties, and introducing the product…; the second dialogue asks to praise his or her product, and to offer it, both to put the buyer in a situation where he is forced to learn about his product, and at the same time, force the buyer to give an opinion on the quality of his goods (of course, want the buyer to comment well on the quality of the goods, but In fact, often buyers often show disparaging attitudes to buy cheap goods: (inquiry purpose); (How to ask): Attitude of the questioner, the seller asks by indirect behavior (praise to invite to buy). The second answer is from the buyer in (46) has a response function including 3 dialogues, of which 2 are asking questions,also have similar ND structure. 2.4.3.3. Classification of questions of the opening dialogue according to content criteria a/ Classification of PN containing an introductory operating system, according to 4 ND criteria (1) Considering the criterion of “who asked”, divided into 2 main types : i/ PN containing the seller’s introductory OS: The seller asked first to introduce, with 1000 conversations with 6729 PNH : – The PN containing the OS in the opening dialogue is 2578/ 6729, accounting for 38.31% . In which, the PN containing the operating system with the function of leading the MB conversation is 1873/2578, accounting for 72, 65%. The PN containing the OS has the function of responding next to the opening dialogue MB is 705/ 2578, accounting for 27, 35%; – PN containing the lead OS of the seller is 1120 /1873, the rate is 59, 80% ii/ PN contains the lead OS of the buyer:Classification of questions of the opening dialogue according to content criteria a/ Classification of PN containing an introductory operating system, according to 4 ND criteria (1) Considering the criterion of “who asked”, divided into 2 main types : i/ PN containing the seller’s introductory OS: The seller asked first to introduce, with 1000 conversations with 6729 PNH : – The PN containing the OS in the opening dialogue is 2578/ 6729, accounting for 38.31% . In which, the PN containing the operating system with the function of leading the MB conversation is 1873/2578, accounting for 72, 65%. The PN containing the OS has the function of responding next to the opening dialogue MB is 705/ 2578, accounting for 27, 35%; – PN containing the seller’s lead-in OS is 1120 /1873, the rate is 59, 80% ii/ PN contains the buyer’s lead-in OS:Classification of questions of the opening dialogue according to content criteria a/ Classification of PN containing an introductory operating system, according to 4 ND criteria (1) Considering the criterion of “who asked”, divided into 2 main types : i/ PN containing the seller’s introductory OS: The seller asked first to introduce, with 1000 conversations with 6729 PNH : – The PN containing the OS in the opening dialogue is 2578/ 6729, accounting for 38.31% . In which, the PN containing the operating system with the function of leading the MB conversation is 1873/2578, accounting for 72, 65%. The PN containing the OS has the function of responding next to the opening dialogue MB is 705/ 2578, accounting for 27, 35%; – PN containing the lead OS of the seller is 1120 /1873, the rate is 59, 80% ii/ PN contains the lead OS of the buyer:The seller asked first to introduce, with 1000 conversations with 6729 PNH: – The PN containing the OS in the opening dialogue is 2578/6729, accounting for 38.31%. In which, the PN containing the operating system with the function of leading the MB conversation is 1873/2578, accounting for 72, 65%. The PN containing the OS has the function of responding next to the opening dialogue MB is 705/ 2578, accounting for 27, 35%; – PN containing the lead OS of the seller is 1120 /1873, the rate is 59, 80% ii/ PN contains the lead OS of the buyer:The seller asked first to introduce, with 1000 conversations with 6729 PNH: – The PN containing the OS in the opening dialogue is 2578/6729, accounting for 38.31%. In which, the PN containing the operating system with the function of leading the MB conversation is 1873/2578, accounting for 72, 65%. The PN containing the OS has the function of responding next to the opening dialogue MB is 705/ 2578, accounting for 27, 35%; – PN containing the lead OS of the seller is 1120 /1873, the rate is 59, 80% ii/ PN contains the lead OS of the buyer:80% ii/ PN contains the buyer’s introductory OS:80% ii/ PN contains the buyer’s introductory OS:

The PN containing the buyer’s introductory OS is 753/1873, accounting for 40.20% (2)According to the criterion of “ask who”, divided into 2 types: PNH of the seller asking the buyer; Buyer’s question asked by seller (3) According to the criteria “ask about what”, we divide into types: i/ Criteria “relationship of “two parties, having PNH: know each other / far away”. strange each other. ii/ Criteria “on the subject” of goods, with PNH: “Types of goods”; “Origin of merchandise”; “Quality goods”; “Price of goods”;… iii/ Criteria of “ritualization”, with PNH: invite, greet, call, apologize, push… (4) Criteria “target of inquiry”, 2 types: genuine PNH ; unofficial. b/ Classify PN containing OS with response function, according to 4 criteria ND (1)Criteria “Who asked”, divided into 2 main types: i/ Buyer’s response PNH: Buyer responds with multiple different types of dialogue,in which the dialogue response by PNH accounts for a small proportion. PNH responds in two main ways: re-questioning by direct PNH; Indirect PNH.

With 1000 conversations with 6729 PNH, the PN containing the OS in the opening is 2578/6729, accounting for 38.31%; The PN containing the introductory OS is 1873/2578, rate 72, 65%; and PN containing OS response was 705/2578, rate 27, 35%. And the PN containing the buyer’s response OS is 400/705, the rate is 56.74%; PN containing OSGT: 236/400, rate 59%; PN containing OSTT is 164/400, the rate is 41%. ii/ Seller’s response PNH: the buyer gives an introductory dialogue as 753/1873, the seller responds to many other types of dialogue: PN narration, description, PNH… PN response dialogue contains OSGT accounting for a relatively high rate, there are 521/753 women with seller’s response, accounting for 69.19%. (2) According to the criterion “Ask who”, divided into 2 types: PNH of the buyer responds is 56.74%; The seller’s PNH is 27,35% (in which some sellers’ PNHs asked again because they couldn’t hear clearly or to be sure) (3)Criteria “Ask about what”, divided into 2 types, according to the principle of conversational collaboration: PNH The response carries the direction of “agree-disagree”. (4) Criterion “Destiny of the question”, 2 types: legitimate/non-official PNH

2.4.3.4. Categorize the questions of the opening dialogue according to 8 formal criteria (1) Criterion “” the presence or absence of the PTH”, including 2 types: i/ PN containing the OS with the presence of PTH such as: who, why , where, what, how… (distinguish from PNH containing PTH but not PNH but other types: imperative,…) ii/ PN containing OS without PTHs: intonation combined with context. (2) Criteria “type of PTH”, including 4 types: (a) PNH containing interrogative pronouns (specialized PNH): Asking about the entity of people, things: who, what, which…; characteristics, properties, characteristics: how, how, how…; quantity, ordinal number: how many, what order…; time: when, how long…; cause: reason, why…; results: how, how…; direction, location: where… (b)PNH contains interrogative adverbs (general): yes…no, yes, did… (c) PNH contains interrogative conjuncts (selected PNH): good, or to be,or again… (d) PNH contains interrogative particles (modal PNH): yes, ah, uh, uh… (3)Criteria “scope of use”, 2 types: PNH wide range / scope narrow (4) Criterion “relation of structure of internal components”, PNH in whole/part. (5) Criteria “number of cores”, PNH with one core / two cores or more (6) Criteria “with or without expected selection to answer”: PNH intends to choose to answer : (opposite; with interrogative adverb: yes…no, have…not…; choice A or B: or…);PNH did not plan to choose the answer: how… (7)Criteria “Yes” more or less corresponding answer possibilities”, we have: PNH with the corresponding most likely answer is accompanied by unknown PTHs (open PNH): where, why, what… and the PNH does not have many possibilities. corresponding answer: (Closed PNH: is the PNH that chooses only one of two answer possibilities / Oriented PNH: is oriented according to an attitude of the questioner,with modal particles at the end of the sentence: ah, uh, uh…) (8) Criterion “based on specific structural type”: Regarding this criterion, it is difficult to determine the number of PNH types, because they identified by each PNH, for example (45) B: Would you like to buy this shirt, or are you afraid that I will sell it too expensive? PN asked (45) to be referred to the type of structure: “is there A, or B?” 2.5.

SOME ACTIONS ASK OTHER INDIRECT ACTIONS According to incomplete statistics, there are about 43 GCSEs: 2.5.1. Ask to persuade: Persuasion is to make people see right, or, to believe, to do as they please with the right reason. Buyers and sellers can persuade each other to believe in what to buy or sell by means of an exchange. Example (48) (see appendix: conversation 110, p76): the seller in (48) convinced the buyer by PNH that the seller was confident that the buyer would not answer correctly. Therefore, the buyer did not respond to the focus of PNH “how is this?”, but answered with another indirect PNH, to show his agreement about the beautiful quality of the shirt that the seller indirectly introduced. introduce. Thus the seller pretends not to know in order to ask the obvious points that are not true (as the seller knows for sure) that the buyer has made,causing the above answers to lead to the seller’s correct conclusion. 2. 5.2. Ask to refute:

To refute is to dismiss the opinion of others and to prove it by putting a PNH against what has to be proved and showing that the assumption leads to absurdity. Example (49) (see appendix: No.111, p.76) (The seller countered with PNH that the seller was convinced that “nothing cheap should buy.” The seller refuted the argument that “everything is good.” buy cheap” with PNH in common sense “topos” is “your money”, should not be greedy and buy poor quality products.As a result, the seller has made the buyer rethink the problem. ) 2.5 .3. Asking to express “Show” is the most obvious way by making it obvious. “Express” is to tell others clearly your feelings, opinions or a psychological state towards a certain situation. In GTMB, both often use GT to express feelings, opinions, a psychological state for the purpose of winning feelings,evoke empathy in the listener. For example (50), (51), (52), (53); (see appendix: dialogue 112, 113, 114, 115, pp.76, 77): [In (50), both of them use social interaction to express attitudes, feelings, and opinions for the purpose of achieving effectiveness. GTMB results.

The seller has sold the goods, but also wants to express more about how he has to sell the item at a low profit in order to win the hearts of the buyer so that he can continue to come to his goods next time. In (51), buyers expressed persuasive and emotional opinions to buy cheaper. . ., in (52) expresses a suggestion, reminder, or probe, in a purposeful manner. As for (53), at first glance, we think this is a legitimate PNH, but in context, it is an indirect PNH, because the seller knows the price of the goods. Here the seller borrows the express OS to entice the buyer to his side. 2.5.4. Ask to negate: Negation is the act of denying the opponent. For example (54), see Appendix No. 116, p.77: (The seller uses indirect PNH to negate the information the buyer just said, implying “common sense” Buy wrong, not sell wrong”.) https://tailieuthamkhao.com

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